Further Reading

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This list is neither exhaustive nor representative of the wealth of primary and secondary sources that I used in writing this book.  Many of the ideas stem from small parts of hundreds of scientific papers in little frequented journals.  Some of these figure here, because they are either important or easily read by a beginner. There are also references that I found either odd or amusing while writing for Earth-Pages.  The most useful sources for unfolding developments are the regular news and views pages in the weekly journals Nature and Science, together with occasional review articles in the science magazines New Scientist  and  Scientific American.  The books provide an easily accessible means of expanding your understanding of basic issues in geology, the physical sciences, and evolutionary biology.

For many references after 2000 Earth-Pages features my brief commentaries that are easily accessed by clicking the appended link. In some cases the linked pages contain several items. Except where these are the first heading, the specific item heading is given (e.g. ‘see Earth-Pages Another angle on the mysteries of the Hadean’)

Further reading for each Part

Part I  Part II  Part III  Part IV  Part V  Part VI  Part VII

Part I: How the World Works

Abe-Ouchi, A. et  al. 2013. Insolation-driven 100,000-year glacial cycles and hysteresis of ice-sheet volume. Nature, v. 500, p. 190-193. (see Earth-Pages)

Andrews Deller, M.E., 2006. Facies discrimination in laterites using Landsat Thematic Mapper, ASTER and ALI data — examples from Eritrea and Arabia. International Journal of Remote Sensing, v. 27, p. 2389–2409.

Albarède, F., 2005. Helium feels the heat in Earth’s mantle. Science, v. 310, p. 1777-1778. (see Earth-Pages)

Angiboust, S. et al., 2012. Eclogite breccia in a subducted ophiolite: A record of intermediate depth earthquakes? Geology, v.  40, p. 707-710. (see Earth-Pages)

Arndt, N.,  2000.  Hot heads and cold tails. Nature, 407, 458-461. (see Earth-Pages)

Atkins, P., 1996.  The Periodic Kingdom.  Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London.

Bak, P., 1997.  How Nature Works: The Science of Self-organized Criticality.  Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Battersby, S., 2003.  Eat your crusts.  New Scientist, 30 August 2003, p. 30-33. (see Earth-Pages)

Battersby, S. 2004.  Fire down below.  New Scientist, 7 August 2004 issue, p. 26-29. (see Earth-Pages Uranium in the core?)

Bowler, S. 2000.  Journey to the Centre of the Earth.  Inside Science #134,  New Scientist 14 October 2000

Brandl, P.A. et al., 2013. High mantle temperatures following rifting cause by continental insulation. Nature Geoscience, v. 6, p. 391-394. (see Earth-Pages)

Burbank, D.W. and 7 others, 2003.  Decoupling of erosion and precipitation in the Himalayas.  Nature, v. 426, p. 652-655. (see Earth-Pages)

Burchfiel, B.C. 2004.  New technology; new geological challengesGSA Today, v. 14, p. 4-10. (see Earth-Pages)

Cairns-Smith, A.G., 1996.  Evolving the Mind: On the Nature of Matter and the Origin of Consciousness. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Chen, W-P. and Brudzinski, M.R., 2001.  Evidence for a large-scale remnant of subducted lithosphere beneath Fiji.  Science, v. 292, p. 2475-2478. (see Earth-Pages)

Cohen, A.S. et al. 2004.  Osmium isotope evidence for the regulation of atmospheric CO2 by continental weathering.  Geology, v. 32, p. 157-160. (see Earth-Pages)

Colling, A. (editor), 1997.  The Dynamic Earth.  The Open University, Milton Keyes UK.

Conrad, C.P. & Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. 2002.  How mantle slabs drive plate tectonics.  Science, v. 298, p. 207-209. (see Earth-Pages)

Dietrich, W.E. & Perron, J.T., 2006. The search for a topographic signature of life. Nature, v. 439, p. 411-418. (see Earth-Pages)

Dorn, R.I. 2014. Ants as a powerful biotic agent of olivine and plagioclase dissolution. Geology, v. 42, p. 771-774. (see Earth-Pages)

Doubrovine, P.V. et al., 2012. Absolute plate motions in a reference frame defined by moving hot spots in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, v. 117, B09101,. (see Earth-Pages)

Duff, P. McL. D. (editor), 1993.  Holmes’ Principles of Physical Geology (4th Edition).  Chapman & Hall, London.

Firsoff, V.A., 1967.  Life, Mind and Galaxies.  Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh.

Fischer, K.M., 2002.  Waning buoyancy in the crustal roots of old mountains.  Nature, v. 417, p. 933-936. (see Earth-Pages Continental roots)

Forte, A.M. and Mitrovica, J.X., 2001.  Deep-mantle high-viscosity flow and thermochemical structure inferred from seismic and geodynamic data.  Nature, v. 410, p. 1049-1056. (see Earth-Pages)

French, S. et al., 2013. Waveform tomography reveals channeled flow at the base of the oceanic lithosphere. Science, v. 342, 227-230. (see Earth-Pages)

French, S.W. & Romanowicz, B., 2015. Broad plumes rooted at the base of the Earth’s mantle beneath major hotspots. Nature, v. 525, p. 95-99. (see Earth-Pages)

Glikson, A.Y 2013. The Asteroid Impact Connection of Planetary Evolution. Springer.

Glikson, A.Y. & Vickers, J. 2010. Asteroid impact connections of crustal evolution. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 57, p. 79–95.

Hamilton, W.B. 2003.  An alternative EarthGSA Today, v. 13(11), p. 4-12. (see Earth-Pages)

Hammond, J.O.S. and 10 others; 2013. Mantle upwelling and initiation of rift segmentation beneath the Afar Depression. Geology, v. 41, p. 635-638. (see Earth-Pages)

Hodges, K., 2006. Climate and the evolution of mountains. Scientific American, v. 295 (August 2006 issue), p. 54-61. (see Earth-Pages)

Holmes, A., 1944.  Principles of Physical Geology (1st Edition).  Thomas Nelson & Sons, London.

Hwang, C & Chang, E.T.Y., 2014. Seafloor secrets revealed. Science, v. 346. p. 32-33. (see Earth-Pages)

Karner, D.B. and Muller, R.A., 2000.  A causality problem for Milankovitch. Science, 288, p.2143-2144. (see Earth-Pages)

Kerr, R.A, 2000.  Atmosphere drives earth’s tipsiness.  Science, v. 289, p. 710. (see Earth-Pages)

Kerr, R.A., 2005. Threshold crossed on the way to a geodynamo in a computer. Science, v. 309, p. 364-365. (see Earth-Pages)

Kerr, R.A., 2009. Scoping out unseen forces shaping North America. Science, v. 325, p. 1620-1621. (see Earth-Pages)

Kutterolf, S. et al., 2013. A detection of Milankovich frequencies in global volcanic activity. Geology, v. 41, p. 227-230. (see Earth-Pages)

Lamb, S. & Sington, D., 1998. Earth Story. BBC, London

Lamb, S. & Davies P., 2003.  Cenozoic climate change as a possible cause for the rise of the Andes.  Nature, v. 425, p. 792-797. (see Earth-Pages)

Lay, T. et al., 2008. Core-mantle boundary heat flow. Nature Geoscience, v. 1, p. 25-32.

Leman, L. et al., 2004.  Carbonyl sulphide – mediated prebiotic formation of peptides.  Science, v. 306, p. 283-286. (see Earth-Pages)

Liu, L. et al. 2008. Reconstructing Farallon plate subduction beneath North America back to the Late Cretaceous. Science, v. 322, p. 934-938. (see Earth-Pages Plate tectonics in time and space)

Machetel , P. & Thomassot , E., 2002.  Cretaceous length of day perturbation by mantle avalanche.  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 202, p. 379-386. (see Earth-Pages)

Molnar, P., 2003.  Nature, nurture and landscape.  Nature, v. 426, p. 612-614. (see Earth-Pages)

Moore, W.B. & Webb, A.A.G., 2013. Heat-pipe Earth. Nature, v.  501, p. 501-505. (see Earth-Pages)

Murthy, V.R. et al,, 2003.  Experimental evidence that potassium is a substantial radioactive heat source in planetary cores.  Nature, v. 423, p. 163-165. (see Earth-Pages)

Nisbet, E.G., 1991.  Leaving Eden.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Nishi, M., 2014. Stability of hydrous silicate at high pressures and water transport to the deep lower mantle. Nature Geoscience, v. 7, p. 224-227. (see Earth-Pages)

Poli, P. et al., 2012. Body-wave imaging of Earth’s mantle discontinuities from ambient seismic noise. Science, v. 338, p. 1063-1065. (see Earth-Pages)

Reiners, P.W., 2003.  Coupled spatial variations in precipitation and long-term erosion rates across the Washington Cascades.  Nature, v. 426, p. 645-647. (see Earth-Pages)

Rose, S., 1997.  Lifelines: Biology, Freedom, Determinism.  Penguin, London.

Rose, S., 2016. Epigenetics: How to Get Another Thorax. London Review of Books, v. 38, 8 September 2016 issue, p. 15-17.

Rubatto, D. et al. 2011. Yo-yo subduction recorded by accessory minerals in the Italian Western Alps. Nature Geoscience, v. 4, p. 338-342. see Earth-Pages)

Rychert, C.A. & Shearer, P.M., 2009. A global view of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Science, v. 324, p. 495-498. (see Earth-Pages)

Sandwell, D.T. et al., 2014. New global marine gravity model from CryoSat-2 and Jason-1 reveals buried tectonic structure. Science, v. 346. p. 65-67. (see Earth-Pages)

Scherstén, A. et al., 2004.  Tungsten isotope evidence that mantle plumes contain no contributions from the Earth’s core.  Nature, v. 427, p. 234-237. (see Earth-Pages)

Shapiro, N.M. et al. 2004.  Thinning and flow of Tibetan crust constrained by seismic anisotropy.  Science, v. 305, p. 233-236. (see Earth-Pages)

Sigloch, K. et al., 2008. Two stage subduction history under North America inferred from multiple-frequency tomography. Nature Geoscience, v. 1, p. 458-462. (see Earth-Pages)

Skinner, B.J. & Porter, S.C., 1995.  The Blue Planet: An Introduction to Earth System Science.  John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Steiner, J. 1967. The sequence of geological events and the dynamics of the Milky Way Galaxy. Journal of the Geological Society of Australia, v. 14, p. 99–132. (see Earth-Pages)

Strahler, A.N., 1972.  Planet Earth: Its Physical Systems Through Geologic Time.  Harper & Row, New York.

Tackley, P.J., 2000.  Mantle convection and plate tectonics: toward an integrated physical and chemical theory.  Science,  288, p. 2002-2007. (see Earth-Pages Geodynamics).

Takahashi, F. et al. 2005. Simulations of a quasi-Taylor state geomagnetic field including polarity reversals on the Earth Simulator. Science, v. 309, p. 459-461

Teagle, D.A.H. & Ildefonse B., 2011. Journey to the mantle of the Earth. Nature, v. 471, p. 437-439. (see Earth-Pages)

Trampert, J. et al., 2004.  Probabilistic tomographic maps chemical heterogeneities throughout the lower mantle.  Science, v. 306, p. 853-856. (see Earth-Pages)

Walter, M.J. and 8 others, 2011. Deep mantle cycling of oceanic crust: evidence from diamonds and their mineral inclusions. Science, v. 334, p. 54-57. (see Earth-Pages)

White, W.M., 2002.  Through the wringer.  Nature, v. 420, p. 366-367. (see Earth-Pages)

Williams, Q., 2014. Deep mantle matters. Science, v. 344, p. 800-801. (see Earth-Pages)

Williams, R.J.P. & Fraústo da Silva, J.J.R., 1996.  The Natural Selection of the Chemical Elements: The Environment and Life’s Chemistry.  Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Wobus, C.W. et al., 2003.  Has focused denudation sustained active thrusting at the Himalayan topographic front?  Geology, v. 31, p. 861-864. (see Earth-Pages)

Wortel, M.J.R. and Spakman, W. 2000.  Subduction and slab detachment in the Mediterranean-Carpathian region.  Science, v. 290, p. 1910-1917. (see Earth-Pages)

Ye, K. et al. 2000.  The possible subduction of continental material to depths greater than 200 km.  Nature, 407, 734-736. (see Earth-Pages)

Yokoyama, T. & Matsukura, Y., 2006. Field and laboratory experiments on weather rate of granodiorite: Separation of chemical and physical processes. Geology, v. 34, p. 809-812. (see Earth-Pages)

Zandt, G. et al. 2004.  Active foundering of a continental arc root beneath the southern Sierra Nevada in California.  Nature, v. 431, p. 41-46. (see Earth-Pages)

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Part II: Peering Into Time

Arnold, G.L. et al., 2004.  Molybdenum isotope evidence for widespread anoxia in mid-Proterozoic oceans.  Science v. 304, p. 87-90. (see Earth-Pages)

Balter, M., 2006. Radiocarbon dating’s final frontier. Science, v. 313, p. 1560-1563. (see Earth-Pages)

Beard, B.L. et al., 2003.  Iron isotope constraints on Fe cycling and mass balance in oxygenated Earth oceans. Geology, v. 31, p. 629-632. (see Earth-Pages)

Biever, C. 2011. Push to define year sparks time war. New Scientist, v. 210 (30 April 2011), p. 10. (see Earth-Pages)

Bjerrum, C.J. and Canfield, D.E., 2002.  Ocean productivity before about 1.9 Gyr ago limited by phosphorus adsorption onto iron oxides.  Nature, v. 417, p. 159-162. (see Earth-Pages)

Brown, G.C., Wilson, R.C.L. & Hawkesworth, C.J., (editors) 1994.  Understanding the Earth (3rd Edition).  Open University Press, Milton Keynes.

Bryan, S. E. & Ferrari, L., 2013. Large igneous provinces and silicic large igneous provinces: Progress in our understanding over the last 25 years. Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 125, p. 1053-1078.

Chane, J. et al. 2015. The 13 million year Cenozoic pulse of the Earth. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 431, p. 256-263. (see Earth-Pages)

Clement, B.M. 2004.  Dependence of the duration of geomagnetic polarity reversals on site latitude.  Nature, v. 428, p. 637-640. (see Earth-Pages)

Cloud, P.,  1988.  Oasis in Space:  Earth History from the Beginning.  W.W. Norton, New York.

Condie, K.C. & Pease, V. (editors) 2008. When did Plate Tectonics Begin on Planet Earth. Special Paper 440, Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado.

Conrad, C.P., 2013. The solid Earth’s influence on sea level. Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 125, p. 1027-1052. (see Earth-Pages)

Crowe, S.A. et al. 2013. Atmospheric oxygenation three billion years ago. Nature, v. 501, p. 535-538. (see Earth-Pages)

Courtillot, V. et al. 2003. Three distinct types of hotspots in the Earth’s mantle. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 205, p. 295-308. (see Earth-Pages)

Cyranoski, D., 2006. Magical mantle tour. Nature, v. 440, p. 1108-1110. (see Earth-Pages)

Dauphas, N. et al. 2004.  Clues from Fe isotope variations on the origin of Early Archean BIFs from Greenland.  Science, v. 306, p. 2077-2080. (see Earth-Pages)

DePaulo, D.J. & Manga, M., 2003.  Deep origin of hotspots – the mantle plume model.  Science, v. 300, p. 920-921. (see Earth-Pages)

Dhuime, B. et al. 2012. A change in the geodynamics of continental growth 3 billion years ago. Science, v. 335, p. 1334-1336. (see Earth-Pages)

Dickin, A.P., 2009. Radiogenic Isotope Geology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Drury, S.A., 2013. The Time Lords of geology. (see Earth-Pages)

Duff, P. McL. D. (editor), 1993.  Holmes’ Principles of Physical Geology (4th Edition).  Chapman & Hall, London.

Evans, D.A.D., 2006. Proterozoic low orbital obliquity and axial-dipolar geomagnetic field from evaporite palaeolatitudes. Nature, v. 444, p. 51-55. (see Earth-Pages)

Foley, S.F et al., 2003.  Evolution of the Archaean crust by delamination and shallow subduction.  Nature, v. 421, p. 249-252. (see Earth-Pages)

Fouger, G.R. & Natland, J.H., 2003.  Is “hotspot” volcanism a consequence of plate tectonics?  Science, v. 300, p. 921-922. (see Earth-Pages)

Franco, D.R. et al. 2012. Millennial-scale climate cycles in Permian-Carboniferous rhythmites: Permanent feature throughout geological time. Geology, v. 40, p. 19-22. (see Earth-Pages)

Frisch, W., Meschede, M. & Blakey, R.C., 2011. Plate Tectonics: Continental Drift and Mountain Building. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Garcia-Castellanos, D. et al. 2009. Catastrophic flood of the Mediterranean after the Messinian salinity crisis. Nature, v. 462, p. 778-781. (see Earth-Pages)

Glatzmaier, G.A. & Olson, P., 2005.  Probing the geodynamo.  Scientific American April 2005, p. 33-39. (see Earth-Pages)

Goldblatt, C. et al., 2006. Biostability of atmospheric oxygen and the Great Oxidation. Nature, v. 443, p. 683-686. (see Earth-Pages)

Hawkesworth, C.J., Cawood, P.A. & Dhuime, B. Tectonics and crustal evolution. GSA Today, v. 26(9), p. 4-11; doi: 10.1130/GSATG272A.1

Hayes, J.M., 2011. Earth’s redox history. Science. v. 334, p. 1654-1655. (see Earth-Pages)

Iizuka, T. et al., 2006. 4.2 Ga zircon xenocryst in an Acasta gneiss from northwestern Canada: evidence for early continental crust. Geology, v. 34, p. 245-248. (see Earth-Pages)

International Commission on Stratigraphy, 2016. Website, International Chronostratigraphic Chart.

Isley, A.E., 1995.  Hydrothermal plumes and the delivery of iron to banded iron formations.  Journal of Geology, v. 103, p. 169-185.

Jackson, M.G. & Carlson, R.W., 2011. An ancient recipe for flood basalt genesis. Nature, v.476, p. 316-319. (see Earth-Pages)

Kappler, A. et al. 2005. Deposition of banded iron formations by anoxygenic phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria. Geology, v.  33, p. 865-868. (see Earth-Pages)

Kasting, J.F., 1993.  Evolution of the Earth’s atmosphere and hydrosphere.  In: Engel, M.H. & Macko, S.A. (editors), Organic Geochemistry.  Plenum Press, New York.

Kauffman, A.J. & Xiao, S. 2003.  High CO2 levels in the Proterozoic atmosphere estimated from analyses of individual microfossils.  Nature, v.  425, p. 279-282. (see Earth-Pages – Precambrian CO2 levels)

Kearey, P. & Vine, F.J., 1996.  Global Tectonics ( 2nd Edition).  Blackwell, Oxford.

Kennedy, M. et al. 2006. Late Precambrian oxygenation; inception of the clay mineral factory. Science, v. 311, p. 1446-1449. (see Earth-Pages)

Kerr, R.A. 2005.  The story of O2Science, v. 308, p. 1730-1732. (see Earth-Pages)

Konhauser, K.O. and 6 others, 2002.  Could bacteria have formed the Precambrian banded iron formations?  Geology, v. 30, p. 1079-1082. (see Earth-Pages)

Kuiper, K.F. et al. 2008. Synchronizing rock clocks of Earth history. Science, v. 320, p. 500-504. (see Earth-Pages)

Kump, L.R. et al., 2011. Isotopic evidence for massive oxidation of organic matter following the Great Oxidation Event. Science. v. 334, p. 1694-1696. (see Earth-Pages)

Larson, R.L., 1991.  Latest pulse of Earth: Evidence for a mid-Cretaceous superplume.  Geology, v. 19, p. 547-550.

Li, Z.X., Evans, D.A.D. &Murphy. J.B. (Eds), 2016. Supercontinent Cycles Through Earth History. Special Publication SP424; Geological Society, London

Lister, G. et al, 2008. Boudinage of a stretching slablet implicated in earthquakes beneath the Hindu Kush. Nature Geoscience, v. 1, p. 196-201. (see Earth-Pages)

Lyons, T.W., Reinhard, C.T. & Planavsky, N.J., 2014. The rise of oxygen in Earth’s early ocean and atmosphere. Nature, v. 506, p. 307-315.

Machetel , P. & Thomassot , E. 2002.  Cretaceous length of day perturbation by mantle avalanche.  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 202, p. 379-386. (see Earth-Pages)

Maclennan, J. & Lovell, B., 2002.  Control of regional sea level by surface uplift and subsidence caused by magmatic underplating of the Earth’s crust.  Geology, v. 30, p. 675-678. (see Earth-Pages)

Martin, H., 1986. Effect of steeper Archean geothermal gradient on geochemistry of subduction-zone magmas. Geology, v. 14, p. 753-756.

Marx, K., 1993. Grundrisse: Foundations of the Critique of Political Economy. Penguin Classics, London.

Mazumder, R. 2004.  Implications of lunar orbital periodicity from the Chaibasa tidal rhythmite (India) of late Paleoproterozoic age.  Geology, v. 32, p. 841-844. (see Earth-Pages A record of the Palaeoproterozoic lunar cycle)

Mojzsis, S.J et al. 2001.  Oxygen-isotope evidence from ancient zircons for liquid water at the Earth’s surface 4,300 Myr ago.  Nature, v. 409, p. 178-181.

Moser, D.E. et al.  2001.  Birth of the Kaapvaal tectosphere 3.08 billion years ago.  Science, v. 291, p. 465-468. (see Earth-Pages)

Ogg, J.G., Ogg, G. & Gradstein, F.M., 2008. The Concise Geologic Time Scale. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

O’Neil, J. et al., 2008. Neodymium-142 evidence for Hadean mafic crust. Science, v. 321, p. 1828-1831. (see Earth-Pages)

Penvenne, L.J., 1995.  Turning up the heat.  New Scientist, (December 16), p. 26-30.

Peslier, A.H. et al. 2010. Olivine water contents in the continental lithosphere and the longevity of cratons. Nature, v. 467, p. 78-81. (see Earth-Pages)

Posth, N.R. et al., 2008. Alternating Si and Fe deposition caused by temperature fluctuations in Precambrian oceans.  Nature Geoscience, v. 1, p. 703-708. (see Earth-Pages Banding in BIFs)

Rasmussen, B. 2005. Evidence for pervasive petroleum generation and migration in 3.2 and 2.63 Ga shales. Geology, v. 33, p. 497-500. (see Earth-Pages)

Roberts, N. M. W., Van Kranendonk, M., Parman, S., Shirey, S. & Clift, P. D. (editors) 2015. Continent Formation Through Time. Geological Society, London, Special Publication 389.

Rogers, J.J.W., 1993.  A History of the Earth.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

Rollinson, H.R., 2007. Early Earth Systems: a Geochemical Approach. Blackwell. Oxford.

Scherer, E., Münker, C. and Mezger, K. 2001.  Calibration of the lutetium-hafnium clock.  Science, v. 293, p. 683-687. (see Earth-Pages Zircons’ window on the Hadean)

Skinner, B.J. & Porter, S.C., 1987.  Physical Geology.  John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Silver, P.G & Behn. M.D. 2008. Intermittent plate tectonics. Science, v. 319, p. 85-88. (see Earth-Pages Is plate tectonics a turn-on or a turn-off?)

Simpson, S. 2009. Violent origins of continents. Scientific American, v. 302(1), p. 46-53. (see Earth-Pages Hot tectonics in the Archaean)

Slack, J.F. & Cannon, W.F. 2009. Extraterrestrial demise of banded iron formations 1.85 billion years ago. Geology, v. 37, p. 1011-1014. (see Earth-Pages Formation of BIFs halted by Sudbury impact)

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Web Resource. The Dynamic Earth.

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Web Resource. Geological Time. (see Earth-Pages)

Steuber, T. & Veizer, J., 2002.  Phanerozoic record of plate tectonic control of seawater chemistry and carbonate sedimentation.  Geology, v. 30, p. 1123-1126. (see Earth-Pages Phanerozoic marine strontium)

Tang, M., Chen, K & Rudnick, R.L., 2016. Archean upper crust transition from mafic to felsic marks the onset of plate tectonics. Science, v. 351, p. 372-375. (see Earth-Pages)

Tarduno, J.A. et al. 2003.  The Emperor seamounts: southward motion of the Hawaiian hotspot plume in Earth’s mantle.  Science, v. 301, p. 1064-1069. (see Earth-Pages Wandering hot spots)

Tarduno, J. et al. 2009. The bent Hawaiian-Emperor hotspot track: inheriting the mantle wind. Science, v. 324, p. 50-53. (see Earth-Pages)

Taylor, S.R. & McLennan, S.M., 1996.  The evolution of continental crust.  Scientific American, (January) p. 60-65.

Torsvic, T.H. 2003.  The Rodinia jigsaw puzzle.  Science, v. 300, p. 1379-1381. (see Earth-Pages)

Torsvik, T.H. et al., 2010. Diamonds sampled by plumes from the core–mantle boundary. Nature, v. 466, p. 352–355. (see Earth-Pages)

Trapp, E. et al. 2004.  Numerical calibration of the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary: Two new U-Pb isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry single-zircon ages from Hasselbachtal (Sauerland, Germany).  Geology, v. 32, p. 857-860. (see Earth-Pages)

Van der Hilst, R.D., Widiyantoro, S. & Engdahl, E.R., 1997.  Evidence for deep mantle circulation from global tomography.  Nature, v. 386, p. 578-584.

Whitfield, J. 2004.  Time lords.  Nature, v. 429, p. 124-125. (see Earth-Pages)

Wilde, S.A. et al.,  2001.  Evidence from detrital zircons for the existence of continental crust and oceans on the Earth 4.4 Gyr ago.  Nature, v. 409, p. 175-178. (see Earth-Pages)

Windley, B.F., 1995.  The Evolving Continents.  John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

Wyllie, P.J., 1976.  The Way the Earth Works.  John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Zegers, T.E. and van Keken, P.E., 2001.  Middle Archean continent formation by crustal delamination.  Geology, v. 29, p. 1083-1086. (see Earth-Pages)

Zhang, N & Zhong, S., 2011.  Heat fluxes at the Earth’s surface and core–mantle boundary since Pangea formation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 306, p. 205-216. (see Earth-Pages)

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Part III: Star Stuff

Albarède, F., 2009. Volatile accretion history of the terrestrial planets and dynamic implications. Nature, v. 461, p. 1227-1233. (see Earth-Pages)

Alexander, C.M.O’D. et al., 2012. The provenances of asteroids, and their contributions to the volatile inventories of the terrestrial planets. Science, v. 337, p. 721-723. (see Earth-Pages)

Bada, J.L., 2013. New insights into prebiotic chemistry from Stanley Miller’s spark discharge experiments. Chemical Society Reviews, v. 42, p.  2186–2196.

Barrow, J.D., 1994.  The Origin of the Universe.  Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London.

Battersby, S., 2011. Earth odyssey. New Scientist, v. 212 (3 December issue), p. 42-45. (see Earth-Pages)

Batygin, K., Laughlin, G. & Morbidelli, A., 2016. Born of chaos. Scientific American, v. 314(May 2016),  p. 20-29. see Earth-Pages)

Bennett, V.C. et al., 2007. Coupled 142Nd-143Nd   isotopic evidence for Hadean mantle dynamics. Science, v. 318, p. 1907-1910. (see Earth-Pages Another angle on the mysteries of the Hadean)

Berry, A.J. et al., 2008. Oxidation state of iron in komatiitic melt inclusions indicates hot Archaean mantle. Nature, v. 455, p. 960-963. (see Earth-Pages)

Boyet, M & Carlson, R.W. 2005. 142Nd Evidence for Early (>4.53 Ga) Global Differentiation of the Silicate Earth.  Science, v. 309, p. 576-581. (see Earth-Pages)

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Part V: Climate, Mantle and Life

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Part VI: Life’s Ups and Downs

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Heeren, F., 2011. Rise of the titans. Nature, v. 475, p. 159-161. (see Earth-Pages)

Hesselbo, S.P. et al., 2002.  Terrestrial and marine extinction at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary synchronized with major carbon-cycle perturbation: A link to initiation of massive volcanism?  Geology, v. 30, p. 251-254. (see Earth-Pages)

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Huang, D. et al., 2012. Diverse transitional giant fleas from the Mesozoic era of China. Nature, v. 483, p. 201-204. (see Earth-Pages)

Huber, B.T. et al., 2002.  Deep-sea paleotemperature record of extreme warmth during the Cretaceous.  Geology, v. 30, p. 123-126. (see Earth-Pages)

Huey, R.B. & Ward, P.D. 2005.  Hypoxia, global warming and terrestrial Late Permian extinctions.  Science, v. 308, p. 398-401. (see Earth-Pages)

Huldtgren, T. et al., 2011. Fossilized nuclei and germination structures identify Ediacaran ‘animal embryos’ as encysting protists. Science. V. 334, p. 1696-1699. (see Earth-Pages)

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Jermiin, L.S. et al., 2005. Is the ‘Big Bang’ in animal evolution real? Science, v. 310, p. 1910-1911. (see Earth-Pages Is the Cambrian Explosion real evidence for an evolutionary burst?)

Joachimski, M.M & Buggisch, W., 2002.  Conodont apatite d18O signatures indicate climatic cooling as a trigger of the Late Devonian mass extinction.  Geology, v. 30, p. 711-714. (see Earth-Pages)

Jourdan, F. et al. 2014. High-precision dating of the Kalkarindji large igneous province, Australia, and synchrony with the Early-Middle Cambrian (Stage 4-5) extinction. Geology, v. 42, p. 543-546. (see Earth-Pages)

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Kerr, R.A., 2002.  Inconstant ancient seas and life’s path.  Science, v. 298, p. 1165-1166. (see Earth-Pages)

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top

Part VII: The People’s Planet

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Falush, D. and 17 others, 2003.  Traces of human migrations in Helicobacter pylori populations.  Science, v.  299, p. 1582-1585. (see Earth-Pages)

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Galaasen, E.V. and 7 others 2014. Rapid reductions in North Atlantic Deep Water during the peak of the last interglacial period. Science, v. 343, 1129-1132. (see Earth-Pages)

Ganopolski, A. et al., 2016. Critical insolation-CO2 relation for diagnosing past and future glacial inception. Nature, v. 529, p. 200-203. (see Earth-Pages)

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