Further Reading


This list is neither exhaustive nor representative of the wealth of primary and secondary sources that I used in writing this book.  Many of the ideas stem from small parts of hundreds of scientific papers in little frequented journals.  Some of these figure here, because they are either important or easily read by a beginner. There are also references that I found either odd or amusing while writing for Earth-Pages.  The most useful sources for unfolding developments are the regular news and views pages in the weekly journals Nature and Science, together with occasional review articles in the science magazines New Scientist  and  Scientific American.  The books provide an easily accessible means of expanding your understanding of basic issues in geology, the physical sciences, and evolutionary biology.

For many references after 2000 Earth-Pages features my brief commentaries that are easily accessed by clicking the appended link. In some cases the linked pages contain several items. Except where these are the first heading, the specific item heading is given (e.g. ‘see Earth-Pages Another angle on the mysteries of the Hadean’)

Further reading for each Part

Part I  Part II  Part III  Part IV  Part V  Part VI  Part VII

Part I: How the World Works

Abe-Ouchi, A. et  al. 2013. Insolation-driven 100,000-year glacial cycles and hysteresis of ice-sheet volume. Nature, v. 500, p. 190-193. (see Earth-Pages)

Andrews Deller, M.E., 2006. Facies discrimination in laterites using Landsat Thematic Mapper, ASTER and ALI data — examples from Eritrea and Arabia. International Journal of Remote Sensing, v. 27, p. 2389–2409.

Albarède, F., 2005. Helium feels the heat in Earth’s mantle. Science, v. 310, p. 1777-1778. (see Earth-Pages)

Angiboust, S. et al., 2012. Eclogite breccia in a subducted ophiolite: A record of intermediate depth earthquakes? Geology, v.  40, p. 707-710. (see Earth-Pages)

Arndt, N.,  2000.  Hot heads and cold tails. Nature, 407, 458-461. (see Earth-Pages)

Atkins, P., 1996.  The Periodic Kingdom.  Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London.

Bak, P., 1997.  How Nature Works: The Science of Self-organized Criticality.  Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Battersby, S., 2003.  Eat your crusts.  New Scientist, 30 August 2003, p. 30-33. (see Earth-Pages)

Battersby, S. 2004.  Fire down below.  New Scientist, 7 August 2004 issue, p. 26-29. (see Earth-Pages Uranium in the core?)

Bowler, S. 2000.  Journey to the Centre of the Earth.  Inside Science #134,  New Scientist 14 October 2000

Brandl, P.A. et al., 2013. High mantle temperatures following rifting cause by continental insulation. Nature Geoscience, v. 6, p. 391-394. (see Earth-Pages)

Burbank, D.W. and 7 others, 2003.  Decoupling of erosion and precipitation in the Himalayas.  Nature, v. 426, p. 652-655. (see Earth-Pages)

Burchfiel, B.C. 2004.  New technology; new geological challengesGSA Today, v. 14, p. 4-10. (see Earth-Pages)

Cairns-Smith, A.G., 1996.  Evolving the Mind: On the Nature of Matter and the Origin of Consciousness. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Chen, W-P. and Brudzinski, M.R., 2001.  Evidence for a large-scale remnant of subducted lithosphere beneath Fiji.  Science, v. 292, p. 2475-2478. (see Earth-Pages)

Cohen, A.S. et al. 2004.  Osmium isotope evidence for the regulation of atmospheric CO2 by continental weathering.  Geology, v. 32, p. 157-160. (see Earth-Pages)

Colling, A. (editor), 1997.  The Dynamic Earth.  The Open University, Milton Keyes UK.

Conrad, C.P. & Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. 2002.  How mantle slabs drive plate tectonics.  Science, v. 298, p. 207-209. (see Earth-Pages)

Dietrich, W.E. & Perron, J.T., 2006. The search for a topographic signature of life. Nature, v. 439, p. 411-418. (see Earth-Pages)

Dorn, R.I. 2014. Ants as a powerful biotic agent of olivine and plagioclase dissolution. Geology, v. 42, p. 771-774. (see Earth-Pages)

Doubrovine, P.V. et al., 2012. Absolute plate motions in a reference frame defined by moving hot spots in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, v. 117, B09101,. (see Earth-Pages)

Duff, P. McL. D. (editor), 1993.  Holmes’ Principles of Physical Geology (4th Edition).  Chapman & Hall, London.

Firsoff, V.A., 1967.  Life, Mind and Galaxies.  Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh.

Fischer, K.M., 2002.  Waning buoyancy in the crustal roots of old mountains.  Nature, v. 417, p. 933-936. (see Earth-Pages Continental roots)

Forte, A.M. and Mitrovica, J.X., 2001.  Deep-mantle high-viscosity flow and thermochemical structure inferred from seismic and geodynamic data.  Nature, v. 410, p. 1049-1056. (see Earth-Pages)

French, S. et al., 2013. Waveform tomography reveals channeled flow at the base of the oceanic lithosphere. Science, v. 342, 227-230. (see Earth-Pages)

French, S.W. & Romanowicz, B., 2015. Broad plumes rooted at the base of the Earth’s mantle beneath major hotspots. Nature, v. 525, p. 95-99. (see Earth-Pages)

Glikson, A.Y 2013. The Asteroid Impact Connection of Planetary Evolution. Springer.

Glikson, A.Y. & Vickers, J. 2010. Asteroid impact connections of crustal evolution. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 57, p. 79–95.

Hamilton, W.B. 2003.  An alternative EarthGSA Today, v. 13(11), p. 4-12. (see Earth-Pages)

Hammond, J.O.S. and 10 others; 2013. Mantle upwelling and initiation of rift segmentation beneath the Afar Depression. Geology, v. 41, p. 635-638. (see Earth-Pages)

Hodges, K., 2006. Climate and the evolution of mountains. Scientific American, v. 295 (August 2006 issue), p. 54-61. (see Earth-Pages)

Holmes, A., 1944.  Principles of Physical Geology (1st Edition).  Thomas Nelson & Sons, London.

Hwang, C & Chang, E.T.Y., 2014. Seafloor secrets revealed. Science, v. 346. p. 32-33. (see Earth-Pages)

Karner, D.B. and Muller, R.A., 2000.  A causality problem for Milankovitch. Science, 288, p.2143-2144. (see Earth-Pages)

Kerr, R.A, 2000.  Atmosphere drives earth’s tipsiness.  Science, v. 289, p. 710. (see Earth-Pages)

Kerr, R.A., 2005. Threshold crossed on the way to a geodynamo in a computer. Science, v. 309, p. 364-365. (see Earth-Pages)

Kerr, R.A., 2009. Scoping out unseen forces shaping North America. Science, v. 325, p. 1620-1621. (see Earth-Pages)

Kutterolf, S. et al., 2013. A detection of Milankovich frequencies in global volcanic activity. Geology, v. 41, p. 227-230. (see Earth-Pages)

Lamb, S. & Sington, D., 1998. Earth Story. BBC, London

Lamb, S. & Davies P., 2003.  Cenozoic climate change as a possible cause for the rise of the Andes.  Nature, v. 425, p. 792-797. (see Earth-Pages)

Lay, T. et al., 2008. Core-mantle boundary heat flow. Nature Geoscience, v. 1, p. 25-32.

Leman, L. et al., 2004.  Carbonyl sulphide – mediated prebiotic formation of peptides.  Science, v. 306, p. 283-286. (see Earth-Pages)

Liu, L. et al. 2008. Reconstructing Farallon plate subduction beneath North America back to the Late Cretaceous. Science, v. 322, p. 934-938. (see Earth-Pages Plate tectonics in time and space)

Machetel , P. & Thomassot , E., 2002.  Cretaceous length of day perturbation by mantle avalanche.  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 202, p. 379-386. (see Earth-Pages)

Molnar, P., 2003.  Nature, nurture and landscape.  Nature, v. 426, p. 612-614. (see Earth-Pages)

Moore, W.B. & Webb, A.A.G., 2013. Heat-pipe Earth. Nature, v.  501, p. 501-505. (see Earth-Pages)

Murthy, V.R. et al,, 2003.  Experimental evidence that potassium is a substantial radioactive heat source in planetary cores.  Nature, v. 423, p. 163-165. (see Earth-Pages)

Nisbet, E.G., 1991.  Leaving Eden.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Nishi, M., 2014. Stability of hydrous silicate at high pressures and water transport to the deep lower mantle. Nature Geoscience, v. 7, p. 224-227. (see Earth-Pages)

Poli, P. et al., 2012. Body-wave imaging of Earth’s mantle discontinuities from ambient seismic noise. Science, v. 338, p. 1063-1065. (see Earth-Pages)

Reiners, P.W., 2003.  Coupled spatial variations in precipitation and long-term erosion rates across the Washington Cascades.  Nature, v. 426, p. 645-647. (see Earth-Pages)

Rose, S., 1997.  Lifelines: Biology, Freedom, Determinism.  Penguin, London.

Rose, S., 2016. Epigenetics: How to Get Another Thorax. London Review of Books, v. 38, 8 September 2016 issue, p. 15-17.

Rubatto, D. et al. 2011. Yo-yo subduction recorded by accessory minerals in the Italian Western Alps. Nature Geoscience, v. 4, p. 338-342. see Earth-Pages)

Rychert, C.A. & Shearer, P.M., 2009. A global view of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Science, v. 324, p. 495-498. (see Earth-Pages)

Sandwell, D.T. et al., 2014. New global marine gravity model from CryoSat-2 and Jason-1 reveals buried tectonic structure. Science, v. 346. p. 65-67. (see Earth-Pages)

Scherstén, A. et al., 2004.  Tungsten isotope evidence that mantle plumes contain no contributions from the Earth’s core.  Nature, v. 427, p. 234-237. (see Earth-Pages)

Shapiro, N.M. et al. 2004.  Thinning and flow of Tibetan crust constrained by seismic anisotropy.  Science, v. 305, p. 233-236. (see Earth-Pages)

Sigloch, K. et al., 2008. Two stage subduction history under North America inferred from multiple-frequency tomography. Nature Geoscience, v. 1, p. 458-462. (see Earth-Pages)

Skinner, B.J. & Porter, S.C., 1995.  The Blue Planet: An Introduction to Earth System Science.  John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Steiner, J. 1967. The sequence of geological events and the dynamics of the Milky Way Galaxy. Journal of the Geological Society of Australia, v. 14, p. 99–132. (see Earth-Pages)

Strahler, A.N., 1972.  Planet Earth: Its Physical Systems Through Geologic Time.  Harper & Row, New York.

Tackley, P.J., 2000.  Mantle convection and plate tectonics: toward an integrated physical and chemical theory.  Science,  288, p. 2002-2007. (see Earth-Pages Geodynamics).

Takahashi, F. et al. 2005. Simulations of a quasi-Taylor state geomagnetic field including polarity reversals on the Earth Simulator. Science, v. 309, p. 459-461

Teagle, D.A.H. & Ildefonse B., 2011. Journey to the mantle of the Earth. Nature, v. 471, p. 437-439. (see Earth-Pages)

Trampert, J. et al., 2004.  Probabilistic tomographic maps chemical heterogeneities throughout the lower mantle.  Science, v. 306, p. 853-856. (see Earth-Pages)

Walter, M.J. and 8 others, 2011. Deep mantle cycling of oceanic crust: evidence from diamonds and their mineral inclusions. Science, v. 334, p. 54-57. (see Earth-Pages)

White, W.M., 2002.  Through the wringer.  Nature, v. 420, p. 366-367. (see Earth-Pages)

Williams, Q., 2014. Deep mantle matters. Science, v. 344, p. 800-801. (see Earth-Pages)

Williams, R.J.P. & Fraústo da Silva, J.J.R., 1996.  The Natural Selection of the Chemical Elements: The Environment and Life’s Chemistry.  Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Wobus, C.W. et al., 2003.  Has focused denudation sustained active thrusting at the Himalayan topographic front?  Geology, v. 31, p. 861-864. (see Earth-Pages)

Wortel, M.J.R. and Spakman, W. 2000.  Subduction and slab detachment in the Mediterranean-Carpathian region.  Science, v. 290, p. 1910-1917. (see Earth-Pages)

Ye, K. et al. 2000.  The possible subduction of continental material to depths greater than 200 km.  Nature, 407, 734-736. (see Earth-Pages)

Yokoyama, T. & Matsukura, Y., 2006. Field and laboratory experiments on weather rate of granodiorite: Separation of chemical and physical processes. Geology, v. 34, p. 809-812. (see Earth-Pages)

Zandt, G. et al. 2004.  Active foundering of a continental arc root beneath the southern Sierra Nevada in California.  Nature, v. 431, p. 41-46. (see Earth-Pages)


Part II: Peering Into Time

Arnold, G.L. et al., 2004.  Molybdenum isotope evidence for widespread anoxia in mid-Proterozoic oceans.  Science v. 304, p. 87-90. (see Earth-Pages)

Balter, M., 2006. Radiocarbon dating’s final frontier. Science, v. 313, p. 1560-1563. (see Earth-Pages)

Beard, B.L. et al., 2003.  Iron isotope constraints on Fe cycling and mass balance in oxygenated Earth oceans. Geology, v. 31, p. 629-632. (see Earth-Pages)

Biever, C. 2011. Push to define year sparks time war. New Scientist, v. 210 (30 April 2011), p. 10. (see Earth-Pages)

Bjerrum, C.J. and Canfield, D.E., 2002.  Ocean productivity before about 1.9 Gyr ago limited by phosphorus adsorption onto iron oxides.  Nature, v. 417, p. 159-162. (see Earth-Pages)

Brown, G.C., Wilson, R.C.L. & Hawkesworth, C.J., (editors) 1994.  Understanding the Earth (3rd Edition).  Open University Press, Milton Keynes.

Bryan, S. E. & Ferrari, L., 2013. Large igneous provinces and silicic large igneous provinces: Progress in our understanding over the last 25 years. Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 125, p. 1053-1078.

Chane, J. et al. 2015. The 13 million year Cenozoic pulse of the Earth. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 431, p. 256-263. (see Earth-Pages)

Clement, B.M. 2004.  Dependence of the duration of geomagnetic polarity reversals on site latitude.  Nature, v. 428, p. 637-640. (see Earth-Pages)

Cloud, P.,  1988.  Oasis in Space:  Earth History from the Beginning.  W.W. Norton, New York.

Condie, K.C. & Pease, V. (editors) 2008. When did Plate Tectonics Begin on Planet Earth. Special Paper 440, Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado.

Conrad, C.P., 2013. The solid Earth’s influence on sea level. Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 125, p. 1027-1052. (see Earth-Pages)

Crowe, S.A. et al. 2013. Atmospheric oxygenation three billion years ago. Nature, v. 501, p. 535-538. (see Earth-Pages)

Courtillot, V. et al. 2003. Three distinct types of hotspots in the Earth’s mantle. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 205, p. 295-308. (see Earth-Pages)

Cyranoski, D., 2006. Magical mantle tour. Nature, v. 440, p. 1108-1110. (see Earth-Pages)

Dauphas, N. et al. 2004.  Clues from Fe isotope variations on the origin of Early Archean BIFs from Greenland.  Science, v. 306, p. 2077-2080. (see Earth-Pages)

DePaulo, D.J. & Manga, M., 2003.  Deep origin of hotspots – the mantle plume model.  Science, v. 300, p. 920-921. (see Earth-Pages)

Dhuime, B. et al. 2012. A change in the geodynamics of continental growth 3 billion years ago. Science, v. 335, p. 1334-1336. (see Earth-Pages)

Dickin, A.P., 2009. Radiogenic Isotope Geology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Drury, S.A., 2013. The Time Lords of geology. (see Earth-Pages)

Duff, P. McL. D. (editor), 1993.  Holmes’ Principles of Physical Geology (4th Edition).  Chapman & Hall, London.

Evans, D.A.D., 2006. Proterozoic low orbital obliquity and axial-dipolar geomagnetic field from evaporite palaeolatitudes. Nature, v. 444, p. 51-55. (see Earth-Pages)

Foley, S.F et al., 2003.  Evolution of the Archaean crust by delamination and shallow subduction.  Nature, v. 421, p. 249-252. (see Earth-Pages)

Fouger, G.R. & Natland, J.H., 2003.  Is “hotspot” volcanism a consequence of plate tectonics?  Science, v. 300, p. 921-922. (see Earth-Pages)

Franco, D.R. et al. 2012. Millennial-scale climate cycles in Permian-Carboniferous rhythmites: Permanent feature throughout geological time. Geology, v. 40, p. 19-22. (see Earth-Pages)

Frisch, W., Meschede, M. & Blakey, R.C., 2011. Plate Tectonics: Continental Drift and Mountain Building. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Garcia-Castellanos, D. et al. 2009. Catastrophic flood of the Mediterranean after the Messinian salinity crisis. Nature, v. 462, p. 778-781. (see Earth-Pages)

Glatzmaier, G.A. & Olson, P., 2005.  Probing the geodynamo.  Scientific American April 2005, p. 33-39. (see Earth-Pages)

Goldblatt, C. et al., 2006. Biostability of atmospheric oxygen and the Great Oxidation. Nature, v. 443, p. 683-686. (see Earth-Pages)

Hawkesworth, C.J., Cawood, P.A. & Dhuime, B. Tectonics and crustal evolution. GSA Today, v. 26(9), p. 4-11; doi: 10.1130/GSATG272A.1

Hayes, J.M., 2011. Earth’s redox history. Science. v. 334, p. 1654-1655. (see Earth-Pages)

Iizuka, T. et al., 2006. 4.2 Ga zircon xenocryst in an Acasta gneiss from northwestern Canada: evidence for early continental crust. Geology, v. 34, p. 245-248. (see Earth-Pages)

International Commission on Stratigraphy, 2016. Website, International Chronostratigraphic Chart.

Isley, A.E., 1995.  Hydrothermal plumes and the delivery of iron to banded iron formations.  Journal of Geology, v. 103, p. 169-185.

Jackson, M.G. & Carlson, R.W., 2011. An ancient recipe for flood basalt genesis. Nature, v.476, p. 316-319. (see Earth-Pages)

Kappler, A. et al. 2005. Deposition of banded iron formations by anoxygenic phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria. Geology, v.  33, p. 865-868. (see Earth-Pages)

Kasting, J.F., 1993.  Evolution of the Earth’s atmosphere and hydrosphere.  In: Engel, M.H. & Macko, S.A. (editors), Organic Geochemistry.  Plenum Press, New York.

Kauffman, A.J. & Xiao, S. 2003.  High CO2 levels in the Proterozoic atmosphere estimated from analyses of individual microfossils.  Nature, v.  425, p. 279-282. (see Earth-Pages – Precambrian CO2 levels)

Kearey, P. & Vine, F.J., 1996.  Global Tectonics ( 2nd Edition).  Blackwell, Oxford.

Kennedy, M. et al. 2006. Late Precambrian oxygenation; inception of the clay mineral factory. Science, v. 311, p. 1446-1449. (see Earth-Pages)

Kerr, R.A. 2005.  The story of O2Science, v. 308, p. 1730-1732. (see Earth-Pages)

Konhauser, K.O. and 6 others, 2002.  Could bacteria have formed the Precambrian banded iron formations?  Geology, v. 30, p. 1079-1082. (see Earth-Pages)

Kuiper, K.F. et al. 2008. Synchronizing rock clocks of Earth history. Science, v. 320, p. 500-504. (see Earth-Pages)

Kump, L.R. et al., 2011. Isotopic evidence for massive oxidation of organic matter following the Great Oxidation Event. Science. v. 334, p. 1694-1696. (see Earth-Pages)

Larson, R.L., 1991.  Latest pulse of Earth: Evidence for a mid-Cretaceous superplume.  Geology, v. 19, p. 547-550.

Li, Z.X., Evans, D.A.D. &Murphy. J.B. (Eds), 2016. Supercontinent Cycles Through Earth History. Special Publication SP424; Geological Society, London

Lister, G. et al, 2008. Boudinage of a stretching slablet implicated in earthquakes beneath the Hindu Kush. Nature Geoscience, v. 1, p. 196-201. (see Earth-Pages)

Lyons, T.W., Reinhard, C.T. & Planavsky, N.J., 2014. The rise of oxygen in Earth’s early ocean and atmosphere. Nature, v. 506, p. 307-315.

Machetel , P. & Thomassot , E. 2002.  Cretaceous length of day perturbation by mantle avalanche.  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 202, p. 379-386. (see Earth-Pages)

Maclennan, J. & Lovell, B., 2002.  Control of regional sea level by surface uplift and subsidence caused by magmatic underplating of the Earth’s crust.  Geology, v. 30, p. 675-678. (see Earth-Pages)

Martin, H., 1986. Effect of steeper Archean geothermal gradient on geochemistry of subduction-zone magmas. Geology, v. 14, p. 753-756.

Marx, K., 1993. Grundrisse: Foundations of the Critique of Political Economy. Penguin Classics, London.

Mazumder, R. 2004.  Implications of lunar orbital periodicity from the Chaibasa tidal rhythmite (India) of late Paleoproterozoic age.  Geology, v. 32, p. 841-844. (see Earth-Pages A record of the Palaeoproterozoic lunar cycle)

Mojzsis, S.J et al. 2001.  Oxygen-isotope evidence from ancient zircons for liquid water at the Earth’s surface 4,300 Myr ago.  Nature, v. 409, p. 178-181.

Moser, D.E. et al.  2001.  Birth of the Kaapvaal tectosphere 3.08 billion years ago.  Science, v. 291, p. 465-468. (see Earth-Pages)

Ogg, J.G., Ogg, G. & Gradstein, F.M., 2008. The Concise Geologic Time Scale. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

O’Neil, J. et al., 2008. Neodymium-142 evidence for Hadean mafic crust. Science, v. 321, p. 1828-1831. (see Earth-Pages)

Penvenne, L.J., 1995.  Turning up the heat.  New Scientist, (December 16), p. 26-30.

Peslier, A.H. et al. 2010. Olivine water contents in the continental lithosphere and the longevity of cratons. Nature, v. 467, p. 78-81. (see Earth-Pages)

Posth, N.R. et al., 2008. Alternating Si and Fe deposition caused by temperature fluctuations in Precambrian oceans.  Nature Geoscience, v. 1, p. 703-708. (see Earth-Pages Banding in BIFs)

Rasmussen, B. 2005. Evidence for pervasive petroleum generation and migration in 3.2 and 2.63 Ga shales. Geology, v. 33, p. 497-500. (see Earth-Pages)

Roberts, N. M. W., Van Kranendonk, M., Parman, S., Shirey, S. & Clift, P. D. (editors) 2015. Continent Formation Through Time. Geological Society, London, Special Publication 389.

Rogers, J.J.W., 1993.  A History of the Earth.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

Rollinson, H.R., 2007. Early Earth Systems: a Geochemical Approach. Blackwell. Oxford.

Scherer, E., Münker, C. and Mezger, K. 2001.  Calibration of the lutetium-hafnium clock.  Science, v. 293, p. 683-687. (see Earth-Pages Zircons’ window on the Hadean)

Skinner, B.J. & Porter, S.C., 1987.  Physical Geology.  John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Silver, P.G & Behn. M.D. 2008. Intermittent plate tectonics. Science, v. 319, p. 85-88. (see Earth-Pages Is plate tectonics a turn-on or a turn-off?)

Simpson, S. 2009. Violent origins of continents. Scientific American, v. 302(1), p. 46-53. (see Earth-Pages Hot tectonics in the Archaean)

Slack, J.F. & Cannon, W.F. 2009. Extraterrestrial demise of banded iron formations 1.85 billion years ago. Geology, v. 37, p. 1011-1014. (see Earth-Pages Formation of BIFs halted by Sudbury impact)

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Web Resource. The Dynamic Earth.

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Web Resource. Geological Time. (see Earth-Pages)

Steuber, T. & Veizer, J., 2002.  Phanerozoic record of plate tectonic control of seawater chemistry and carbonate sedimentation.  Geology, v. 30, p. 1123-1126. (see Earth-Pages Phanerozoic marine strontium)

Tang, M., Chen, K & Rudnick, R.L., 2016. Archean upper crust transition from mafic to felsic marks the onset of plate tectonics. Science, v. 351, p. 372-375. (see Earth-Pages)

Tarduno, J.A. et al. 2003.  The Emperor seamounts: southward motion of the Hawaiian hotspot plume in Earth’s mantle.  Science, v. 301, p. 1064-1069. (see Earth-Pages Wandering hot spots)

Tarduno, J. et al. 2009. The bent Hawaiian-Emperor hotspot track: inheriting the mantle wind. Science, v. 324, p. 50-53. (see Earth-Pages)

Taylor, S.R. & McLennan, S.M., 1996.  The evolution of continental crust.  Scientific American, (January) p. 60-65.

Torsvic, T.H. 2003.  The Rodinia jigsaw puzzle.  Science, v. 300, p. 1379-1381. (see Earth-Pages)

Torsvik, T.H. et al., 2010. Diamonds sampled by plumes from the core–mantle boundary. Nature, v. 466, p. 352–355. (see Earth-Pages)

Trapp, E. et al. 2004.  Numerical calibration of the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary: Two new U-Pb isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry single-zircon ages from Hasselbachtal (Sauerland, Germany).  Geology, v. 32, p. 857-860. (see Earth-Pages)

Van der Hilst, R.D., Widiyantoro, S. & Engdahl, E.R., 1997.  Evidence for deep mantle circulation from global tomography.  Nature, v. 386, p. 578-584.

Whitfield, J. 2004.  Time lords.  Nature, v. 429, p. 124-125. (see Earth-Pages)

Wilde, S.A. et al.,  2001.  Evidence from detrital zircons for the existence of continental crust and oceans on the Earth 4.4 Gyr ago.  Nature, v. 409, p. 175-178. (see Earth-Pages)

Windley, B.F., 1995.  The Evolving Continents.  John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

Wyllie, P.J., 1976.  The Way the Earth Works.  John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Zegers, T.E. and van Keken, P.E., 2001.  Middle Archean continent formation by crustal delamination.  Geology, v. 29, p. 1083-1086. (see Earth-Pages)

Zhang, N & Zhong, S., 2011.  Heat fluxes at the Earth’s surface and core–mantle boundary since Pangea formation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 306, p. 205-216. (see Earth-Pages)


Part III: Star Stuff

Albarède, F., 2009. Volatile accretion history of the terrestrial planets and dynamic implications. Nature, v. 461, p. 1227-1233. (see Earth-Pages)

Alexander, C.M.O’D. et al., 2012. The provenances of asteroids, and their contributions to the volatile inventories of the terrestrial planets. Science, v. 337, p. 721-723. (see Earth-Pages)

Bada, J.L., 2013. New insights into prebiotic chemistry from Stanley Miller’s spark discharge experiments. Chemical Society Reviews, v. 42, p.  2186–2196.

Barrow, J.D., 1994.  The Origin of the Universe.  Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London.

Battersby, S., 2011. Earth odyssey. New Scientist, v. 212 (3 December issue), p. 42-45. (see Earth-Pages)

Batygin, K., Laughlin, G. & Morbidelli, A., 2016. Born of chaos. Scientific American, v. 314(May 2016),  p. 20-29. see Earth-Pages)

Bennett, V.C. et al., 2007. Coupled 142Nd-143Nd   isotopic evidence for Hadean mantle dynamics. Science, v. 318, p. 1907-1910. (see Earth-Pages Another angle on the mysteries of the Hadean)

Berry, A.J. et al., 2008. Oxidation state of iron in komatiitic melt inclusions indicates hot Archaean mantle. Nature, v. 455, p. 960-963. (see Earth-Pages)

Boyet, M & Carlson, R.W. 2005. 142Nd Evidence for Early (>4.53 Ga) Global Differentiation of the Silicate Earth.  Science, v. 309, p. 576-581. (see Earth-Pages)

Chandler, D.L. 2003.  Crater find backs falling star legend.  New Scientist, 21 June 2003, p. 13. (see Earth-Pages)

Chapman, C.R. & Morrison, D, 1994.  Impacts on the Earth by asteroids and comets: assessing the hazard.  Nature, v. 367, p. 33-40.

Chown, M.  2004.  The planet that stalked the Earth.  New Scientist, 14 August 2004, p. 26-30. (see Earth-Pages Early Earth’s Nemesis)

Dahl, T.W., 2016. Identifying remnants of early Earth. Science, v. 352, p. 768-769. (see Earth-Pages)

Elliott, T., 2012. Galvanized lunacy. Nature, v. 490, p. 346-7. (see Earth-Pages)

Flament, N. et al. 2008. A case for late-Archaean continental emergence from thermal evolution models and hypsometry. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 275, p. 326-336. (see Earth-Pages Archaean ‘Waterworld’)

Garde, A.A. et al., 2012. Searching for giant, ancient impact structures on Earth: The Mesoarchaean Maniitsoq structure, West Greenland. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v.  337, p. 197-210. (see Earth-Pages)

Gilmour, I., Wright, I.P., Wright, J.B. & Drury, S.A., 1997.  Origins of Earth and Life.  Open University, Milton Keynes.

Glikson, A.Y., 1995.  Asteroid/comet mega-impacts may have triggered major episodes of crustal evolution.  Eos v. 76, p. 49, 54-55.

Glikson A.Y. 2004. Early Precambrian asteroid impact-triggered tsunami: excavated seabed, debris flows, exotic boulders, and turbulence features associated with 3.472 Ga-old asteroid impact fallout units, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. Astrobiology v. 4, p. 5–19.

Glikson A.Y. & Hickman, A.H. 2014. Coupled asteroid impacts and banded iron-formations,
Fortescue and Hamersley Groups, Pilbara, Western Australia. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08120099.2014.908952

Goldman, N. et al., 2010. Synthesis of glycine-containing complexes in impacts of comets on early Earth. Nature Chemistry, v. 2, p. 949–954. (see Earth-Pages)

Halliday, A.N. 2004,  Mixing, volatile loss and compositional change during impact-driven accretion of the Earth.  Nature, v. 427, p. 505-509. (see Earth-Pages)

Hartmann, W.K. 2015. Chelyabinsk, Zond IV, and a possible first-century fireball of historical importance. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, v. 50, p. 368-381. (see Earth-Pages)

Harwartz, D. et al., 2014. Identification of the giant impactor Theia in lunar rocks. Science, v. 344, p. 1146-1150. (see Earth-Pages)

Head, J.W. III, 1994.  Venus after the flood.  Nature, v. 372, p. 729-730.

Henbest, N., 1991.  Birth of the planets.  New Scientist, (24 August), p. 30-35.

Holzheid, A. et al., 2000.  Evidence for a late chondritic veneer in the Earth’s mantle from high-pressure partitioning of palladium and platinum.  Nature, v. 406, p. 396-399. (see Earth-Pages)

Israelian, G.  et al., 2001.  Evidence for planet engulfment by the star HD82943.  Nature, v. 411, p. 163-166. (see Earth-Pages Life on Earth even luckier than we thought?)

Javaux, E.J. et al., 2010. Organic-walled microfossils in 3.2-billion-year-old shallow marine siliciclastic deposits. Nature, v. 463, p. 934-938. (see Earth-Pages Believable Archaean fossils)

Kasting, J.F. & Ono, S., 2006. Paleoclimates: the first two billion years. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences), v. 361, p. 917-929.

Kruijer, T.S. et al., 2015. Lunar tungsten isotopic evidence for the late veneer. Nature, v. 520, p. 534-537. (see Earth-Pages)

Lagos, M. et al. 2008. The Earth’s missing lead may not be in the core. Nature, v. 456, p. 89-92. (see Earth-Pages)

Lane, N., 2009. The cradle of life. New Scientist v. 204 (17 October 2009), p. 38-42. (see Earth-Pages)

Lowe, D.R. et al., 2014. Recently discovered 3.42-3.23 Ga impact layers, Barberton Belt, South Africa: 3.8 Ga detrital zircons, Archaean impact history and tectonic implications. Geology, v. 42, p. 747-750. (see Earth-Pages)

Lunine, J.I., 2006. Physical conditions on the early Earth. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences), v. 361, p. 1721-1731. (see Earth-Pages)

Luu, J.X. & Jewitt, D.C., 1996.  The Kuiper Belt.  Scientific American, v. 274, p. 46-52.

Maier, W. D. et al., 2009. Progressive mixing of meteoritic veneer into the early Earth’s deep mantle. Nature, v. 460, p. 620-623. (see Earth-Pages)

Marcus, R. et al., 2016. Website, Earth Impacts Effects Program.

Meibom, A. et al., 2002.  Re-Os isotopic evidence for long-lived heterogeneity and equilibration processes in the Earth’s upper mantle.  Nature, v. 419, p. 705-708. (see Earth-Pages Detrital platinum-group grains)

Melosh, H.J., 1989.  Impact Cratering: A Geological Process.  Oxford University Press, New York.

Nemchin, A. et al., 2009. Timing of crystallization of the lunar magma ocean constrained by the oldest zircon. Nature Geosciences, v. 2, p. 133-136. (see Earth-Pages Moon-forming impact dated)

Nisbet, E.G., 1987.  The Young Earth.  Allen & Unwin, Boston.

Pahlevan, K. & Stevenson, D.J., 2007. Equilibration in the aftermath of the lunar-forming giant impact. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. v. 262, p. 438–449. (see Earth-Pages)

Randall, L. & Reece, MM. 2014. Dark matter as a trigger for periodic comet impacts. Physical Review Letters. (see Earth-Pages)

Sleep, N.H.,  2001.  Oxygenating the atmosphere.  Nature, v. 410, p. 317-319. (see Earth-Pages)

Sleep, N.H., 2010. The Hadean-Archaean environment. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology.

Sleep, N.H. & Lowe, D.R., 2014. Physics of crustal fracturing and chert dike formation triggered by asteroid impact, ~3.26 Ga, Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, v. 15, (see Earth-Pages)

Tang, M., Chen, K. and Rudnick, R.L., 2016. Archean upper crust transition from mafic to felsic marks the onset of plate tectonics. Science, v. 351, p. 372-375. (see Earth-Pages)

Tarduno, J.A. et al., 2015. A Hadean to Paleoarchean geodynamo recorded by single zircon crystals. Science, v. 349, p. 521-524. (see Earth-Pages)

Taylor, S.R., 1987.  The origin of the Moon.  American Scientist, (September-October), p. 468-477.

Taylor, S.R., 1992.  Solar System Evolution: A New Perspective.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Touboul, M. et al., 2015. Tungsten isotopic evidence for disproportional late accretion to the Earth and Moon. Nature, v. 520, p. 530-533. (see Earth-Pages)

Valley, J.W. et al., 2002.  A cool early Earth.  Geology, v. 30, p. 351-354.

Watson, E.B & Harrison, T.M., 2005.  Zircon thermometer reveals minimum melting conditions on earliest Earth.  Science, v. 308, p. 841-844. (see Earth-Pages)

Wood, B.J. et al., 2006. Accretion of the Earth and segregation of its core. Nature, v. 441, p. 825-833. (see Earth-Pages)


Part IV: ‘A Warm Little Pond’?

Abele, D., 2002.  The radical life-giver.  Nature, v. 420, p. 27. (see Earth-Pages)

Abramov, O. & Mojzis, S.J. 2009. Microbial habitability of the Hadean Earth during the late heavy bombardment. Nature, v. 459, p. 419-422. (see Earth-Pages Hadean not so hellish for life)

Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, et al., 2002. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition. Garland Science, New York.

Anders, E., 1996.  Evaluating the evidence for past life on Mars.  Science, v. 274, p. 2119-2120.

Archibald, J.M. 2015. Endosymbiosis and eukaryotic cell evolution. Current Biology, v. 25, p. R911-R921.

Bada, J.L., Bigham, C. & Miller, S.L., 1994.  Impact melting of frozen oceans on the early Earth:  Implications for the origin of lifeProceedings of the National Academy of Science, v. 91, p. 1248-1250.

Bengtson, S. (editor), 1994.  Early Life on Earth.  Columbia University Press, New York.

Bernhardt, H.S., 2012. The RNA world hypothesis: the worst theory of the early evolution of life (except for all the others). Biology Direct.

Bond, D.R. et al., 2002.  Electrode-reducing microorganisms that harvest energy from marine sediments.  Science, v. 295, p. 483-485. (see Earth-Pages The simplest living ecosystem)

Boussau, B. et al., 2008. Parallel adaptations to high temperatures in the Archaean eon. Nature, v. 456, p. 942-945. (see Earth-Pages Molecular evidence for the environment of the universal ancestor)

Brazier, M.D. et al., 2002.  Questioning the evidence for Earth’s oldest fossils.  Nature, v. 416, p. 76-81. (see Earth-Pages Doubt cast on earliest bacterial fossils)

Cairns-Smith, A.G., 1985.  Seven Clues to the Origin of Life.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Catling, D.C., Zahnla, K.J. & McKay, C.P., 2001.  Biogenic methane, hydrogen escape, and the irreversible oxidation of early Earth.  Science, v. 293, p, 839-843. (see Earth-Pages)

Cech, T.R. 2004. Exploring the new RNA world. Essay at the Nobel Prize web site.

Chapelle, F.H. et al., 2002.  A hydrogen-based subsurface microbial community dominated by methanogens.  Nature, v. 415, p. 312-315. (see Earth-Pages The simplest living ecosystem) (see Earth-Pages)

Cleaves, H.J., 2013. Prebiotic chemistry: geochemical context and reaction screening. Life (Basel), v. 3, p. 331-345.

Cohen, B.A. et al., 2000.  Support for the lunar cataclysm hypothesis from lunar meteorite impact melt ages.  Science, v. 290, p. 1754-1755. (see Earth-Pages Early life survived lunar cataclysm)

Cohen, P., 1996.  Let there be life.  New Scientist, (6 July), p.22-27.

Cooper, G. et al., 2001.  Carbonaceous meteorites as a source for sugar-related compounds for the early Earth.  Nature, v. 414, p. 879-883. (see Earth-Pages)

Cooper, G.M. & Hausman, R.E., 2013. The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 6th Edition. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland MA, USA.

Copley, J., 2003.  Proof of life.  New Scientist, 22 February 2003, p. 28-31. (see Earth-Pages Did terrestrial life emerge later than geochemists think?)

Crowe, S.A. et al., 2013. Atmospheric oxygenation three billion years ago. Nature, v. 501, p. 535-538. (see Earth-Pages)

Czaja, A.D. et al., 2013. Biological Fe oxidation controlled deposition of banded iron formation in the ca. 3770 Ma Isua Supracrustal Belt (West Greenland). Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 363, p. 192-203. (see Earth-Pages)

Dahl, T.W., 2016. Identifying remnants of early Earth. Science, v. 352, p. 768-769. (see Earth-Pages)

Dauphas, N. et al. 2004.  Clues from Fe isotope variations on the origin of Early Archean BIFs from Greenland.  Science, v. 306, p. 2077-2080. (see Earth-Pages Iron isotopes enter the Archaean life debate)

Dawkins, R., 1995.  River out of Eden.  Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London.

Dutkiewicz, A. et al. 2003.  Biomarkers, brines, and oil in the Mesoproterozoic, Roper Superbasin, Australia.  Geology, v. 31, p. 981-984. (see Earth-Pages Eucarya missing from Mesoproterozoic)

Dutkiewicz, A. et al., 2006. Biomarkers from Huronian oil-bearing inclusions: An uncontaminated record of life before the Great Oxidation Event. Geology, v. 34, p. 437-440. (see Earth-Pages)

Doolittle, W.F., 1998.  A paradigm gets shifty.  Nature, v. 392, p. 15-16.

El Albani, A. and 21 others, 2010. Large colonial organisms with coordinated growth in oxygenated environments 2.1 Gyr ago. Nature, v. 466, p. 100-104. (see Earth-Pages)

Fischetti, M. 2016. The circle of life. Scientific American, v. 314 (March 2016)

Fortey, R., 1997.  Life: An Unauthorised Biography. Harper Collins, London.

Foustoukos, D.I. & Seyfried, W.E., 2004.  Hydrocarbons in hydrothermal vent fluids: The role of chromium-bearing catalysts.  Science, v. 304, p. 1002-1005. (see Earth-Pages)

Furnes, H. et al., 2004.  Early life recorded in Archean pillow lavas.  Science, v. 304, p. 578-581. (see Earth-Pages Early biomarkers in South African pillow lavas)

Furukawa,Y. et al., 2009. Biomolecule formation by oceanic impacts on early Earth. Nature Geoscience, v. 2, p. 62-66. (see Earth-Pages Experiments on formation of organic compounds by impacts)

Garcia-Ruiz, J.M. et al., 2003.  Self-assembled silica-carbonate structures and detection of ancient microfossils.  Science, v. 302, p. 1194-1197. (see Earth-Pages Artificial Archaean “fossils”)

Garvin, J. et al., 2009. Isotopic evidence for an aerobic nitrogen cycle in the latest Archaean. Science, v. 323, p. 1045-1048. (see Earth-Pages)

Gill, R., 1996.  Chemical Fundamentals of Geology (2nd Edition).  Chapman & Hall, London.

Hinchliffe, C.E. and 21 others, 2015. Synthesis of phylogeny and taxonomy into a comprehensive tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, v. 112, p. 12764-12769. (see Earth-Pages)

Holland, H.D., 1997.  Evidence for life on Earth more than 3850 million years ago.  Science, v. 275, p. 38-39.

Holmes, R., 1997.  When we were worms.  New Scientist, (October 18), p. 30-35.

House, C.H. et al., 2000.  Carbon isotope composition of individual Precambrian microfossils.  Geology, v. 28, p. 707-710. (see Earth-Pages)

Hren, M.T. et al. 2009. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope evidence for a temperate climate 3.42 billion years ago. Nature, v. 462, p. 205-208. (see Earth-Pages Was the Archaean blazing hot or balmy?)

Huber, C. et al., 2003.  A possible primordial peptide cycle.  Science, v.  301, p. 938-940. (see Earth-Pages)

Jortner, J., 2006. Conditions for the emergence of life on the early Earth: summary and reflections. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences), v. 361, p. 1877-1891.

Kauffman, S., 1995.  At Home in the Universe.  Viking, London.

Knoll, A.H., 1992.  The early evolution of eukaryotes: A geological perspective.  Science, v. 256, p. 622-627.

Konhhauser, K.O. and eight others 2009. Oceanic nickel depletion and a methanogen famine before the Great Oxidation Event. Nature, v. 458, p. 750-753. (see Earth-Pages)

Lepland, A. et al., 2005.  Questioning the evidence for Earth’s earliest life – Akilia revisited.  Geology, v. 33, p. 77-79. (see Earth-Pages No graphite in Akilia apatites, no sign of life?)

Leslie, M., 2009. On the origin of photosynthesis. Science, v. 323, p. 1286-1287. (see Earth-Pages Photosynthesis from way back when: the hunt for RuBisCO)

Liu, A.G. et al., 2010. First evidence for locomotion in the Ediacaran biota from the 565 Ma Mistaken Point Formation, Newfoundland. Geology, v. 38, p. 123-126. (see Earth-Pages ‘Roger, I think that triffid just moved’)

Margulis, L., 1970.  The Origin of Eukaryotic Cells.  Yale University Press, New Haven.

Margulis, L., 1996.  Archaeal-eubacterial mergers in the origin of Eukarya: Phylogenetic classification of lifeProceedings of the National Academy of Science, v. 93, p. 1071-1076.

Martin, W.F., Garg, S. & Zimorsky, V. 2015. Endosymbiotic theories for eukaryote origin. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, v. 370

Michaelis, W. and 16 others, 2002.  Microbial reefs in the Black Sea fuelled by anaerobic oxidation of methane.  Science, v. 297, p. 1013-1015. (see Earth-Pages Analogue of Archaean carbon cycle in Black Sea reefs)

Mojzsis, S.J., Arrhenius, G., McKeegan, K.D., Harrison, T.M., Nutman, A.P. & Friend, C.R.L., 1996,  Evidence for life on Earth before 3,800 million years ago.  Nature, v. 384, p. 55-59.

Niedźwiedski, G. et al., 2010. Tetrapod trackways from the early Middle Devonian period of Poland. Nature, v. 463, p. 43-48. (see Earth-Pages)

Nisbet, E.G., 1991.  Living Earth: A Short History of Life and its Home.  Harper Collins, London.

Nisbet, E.G., 1995.  Archaean ecology: a review of evidence for the early development of bacterial biomes, and speculations on the development of a global-scale bioosphere.  In: Coward, M.P. & Ries, A.C. (editors) Early Precambrian Processes.  Geological Society Special Publication No 95, p. 27-51.

Nisbet, E.G. & Fowler, C.M.R., 1996.  Some liked it hot.  Nature, v. 382, p. 404-405.

Nisbet, E.G. & Sleep, N.H., 2001. The habitat and nature of early life. Nature, v. 409, p. 1083-1091. (see Earth-Pages)

Nisbet, E.G. et al., 2007. The age of Rubisco: the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Geobiology, v. 5, p. 311-335. (see Earth-Pages Photosynthesis from way back when: the hunt for RuBisCO)

Nutman, A.P. et al. 2016. Rapid emergence of life shown by discovery of 3,700-million-year-old microbial structures. Nature, v. 537, published online 31 August 2016, doi:10.1038/nature. (see Earth-Pages)

Oberbeck, V.R., Marshall, J. & Shen, T, 1991.  Prebiotic chemistry in clouds.  Journal of Molecular Evolution, v. 32, p. 296-303.

Orgel, L.E., 1994. The origin of life on the earth. Scientific American, v. 271 (October issue), p 76–83.

Orgel, L.E., 2004. Prebiotic chemistry and the origin of the RNA world. Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 39, p 99–123.

Pearson, P.N. et al. 2009. Atmospheric carbon dioxide through the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition. Nature, v. 461, p. 1110-1113. (see Earth-Pages)

Petersen, J.M. and 14 others, 2011. Hydrogen is an energy source for hydrothermal vent symbioses. Nature, v. 476, p. 176-180. (see Earth-Pages)

Phoenix, V.R. et al.  2001.  Role of biomineralization as an ultraviolet shield: Implications for Archaean life.  Geology, v. 29, p. 823-826. (see Earth-Pages Surviving the Archaean with a UV jacket)

Planavsky, N. et al. 2009. Iron-oxidizing microbial ecosystems thrived in late Paleoproterozoic redox-stratified oceans. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 286, p. 230-242. (see Earth-Pages)

Planavsky, N.J. et al., 2010. The evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir. Nature, v. 467, p. 1088-1090. (see Earth-Pages)

Rasmussen, B. et al., 2008. Reassessing the first appearance of eukaryotes and cyanobacteria. Nature, v. 455, p. 1101-1104. (see Earth-Pages Evidence for earliest photosynthesisers takes a knock)

Rasmussen, B. et al. 2015. Precipitation of iron silicate nanoparticles in early Precambrian oceans marks Earth’s first iron age. Geology, v. 43, p. 303-306. (see Earth-Pages)

Rational Wiki, 2016. Endosymbiosis. http://rationalwiki.org/wiki/Endosymbiosis

Rose, S., 1997.  Lifelines: Biology, Freedom, Determinism.  Penguin, London.

Ruepp, A. and 9 others,  2000.  The genome sequence of the thermoacidophilic scavenger Thermoplasma acidiphilumNature, v. 407, 508-513. (see Earth-Pages Primordial slime)

Schopf, J.W. et al., 2002.  Laser-Raman imagery of Earth’s earliest fossils.  Nature, v. 416, p. 73-76. (see Earth-Pages Doubt cast on earliest bacterial fossils)

Shen, Y.  et al., 2001.  Isotopic evidence for microbial sulphate reduction in the early Archaean era.  Nature, v. 410, p. 77-81.

Skelton, P.W. (editor), 1993.  Evolution:A Biological and Palaeontological Approach.  Open University Course S365, Addison-Wesley, Wokingham.

Staudigel, H. et al., 2006. Microbes and volcanoes: A tale from the oceans, ophiolites and greenstone belts. GSA Today, v. 16, October 2006 issue, p. 4-10. (see Earth-Pages)

Touret , J.L.R., 2003. Remnants of early Archaean hydrothermal methane and brines in pillow-breccia from the Isua Greenstone Belt, West Greenland.  Precambrian Research, v. 126, p. 219-233. (see Earth-Pages)

Tull, A.J.T., Courtney, C., Jeffrey, D.A. & Beck, J.W., 1998.  Isotopic evidence for a terrestrial source of organic compounds found in Martian meteorites, Allan Hills 84001 and Elephant Moraine 79001.  Science, v. 279, p. 366-367.

Ueno, Y. et al., 2006. Evidence from fluid inclusions for microbial methanogenesis in the early Archaean era. Nature, v. 516, p. 516-519. (see Earth-Pages Methane, methanogens and early climate control)

van Zullen, M.A. et al., 2002.  Reassessing the evidence for the earliest traces of life.  Nature, v. 418, p. 627-630. (see Earth-Pages Isotopic evidence for early life may be from metamorphic processes)

Wachtershauser, G., 2014. The place of RNA in the origin and early evolution of the genetic machinery. Life (Basel), v. 4.,

Williams, L.B. et al. 2005. Organic molecules formed in a ‘primordial womb’. Geology, v. 33, p. 913-916. (see Earth-Pages Clay minerals and the origin of life)

Williams, R.J.P & Fraústo da Silva J.J.R., 2003.  Evolution was chemically constrained.  Journal of Theoretical Biology, v. 220, p. 323-343. (see Earth-Pages)

Woese, C.R., Kandler, O. & Wheelis, M.L., 1990.  Towards a natural system of organisms: Proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, v. 87, p. 4576-4579.

Yang, D. et al., 2013. Enhanced transcription and translation in clay hydrogel and implications for early life evolution. Scientific Reports, v. 3,.

Xiong, J. et al., 2000.  Molecular evidence for the early evolution of photosynthesis.  Science, v.  289 , p. 1724-1730. (see Earth-Pages).

Yong, E., 2017. I Contain Multitudes: The Microbes within us and a Grander View of Life. Vintage, London.


Part V: Climate, Mantle and Life

Abrajevitch, A. & van der Voo, R. 2010. Incompatible Ediacaran paleomagnetic directions suggest an equatorial geomagnetic dipole hypothesis. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 293, p. 164-170. (see Earth-Pages)

Allen, P.A. & Hoffman, P.F. 2005.  Extreme winds and waves in the aftermath of a Neoproterozoic glaciation.  Nature, v. 433, p. 123-127. (see Earth-Pages)

Arnaud, E. & Eyles, C.H., 2002.  Catastrophic mass failure of a Neoproterozoic glacially influenced continental margin, the Great Breccia, Port Askaig Formation, Scotland.  Sedimentary Geology, v. 151, p. 313-333. (see Earth-Pages)

Bains, S., 2000.  Termination of global warmth at the Palaeocene/Eocene boundary through productivity feedback.  Nature, v. 407, p. 171-174. (see Earth-Pages)

Benoit, M.H. et al. 2006. Upper mantle P-wave speed variations beneath Ethiopia and the origin of the Afar hotspot. Geology, v. 34, p. 329-332. (see Earth-Pages Afar and the African superplume)

Berner, R.A., 1994.  Geocarb II: A revised model of atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic time.  American Journal of Science, v. 294, p. 56-91.

Berner, R.A., Lasaga, A.C. & Garrels, R.M., 1983.  The carbonate-silcate geochemical cycle and its efect on atmospheric carbon dioxide over the past 100 million years.  American Journal of Science, v. 283, p. 641-683.

Bodiselitsch, B. et al., 2005.  Estimating duration and intensity of Neoproterozoic Snowball glaciations from Ir anomalies.  Science, v. 308. p. 239-242. (see Earth-Pages)

Bornemann, A. and 8 others 2008. Isotopic evidence for glaciation during the Cretaceous supergreenhouse. Science, v. 319, p. 189-192. (see Earth-Pages)

Brigham-Grette, J and 15 others 2013. Pliocene warmth, polar amplification, and stepped Pleistocene cooling recorded in NE Arctic Russia. Science, v. 340, p. 1421-1426. (see Earth-Pages)

Bristow, T.F. et al. 2011. A hydrothermal origin for isotopically anomalous cap dolostone cements from south China. Nature, v. 274, p. 68-71. (see Earth-Pages)

Buffet, B.A., 2010. The enigmatic inner core. Science, v. 328, p. 982-983. (see Earth-Pages)

Calver, C.R. et al. 2004.  U-Pb zircon age constraints on late Neoproterozoic glaciation in Tasmania. Geology, v. 32, p. 893-896. (see Earth-Pages)

Cohen, A.S. et al., 2004.  Osmium isotope evidence for the regulation of atmospheric CO2 by continental weathering.  Geology, v. 32, p. 157-160. (see Earth-Pages)

Condon, D.J. et al., 2002.  Neoproterozoic glacial-rainout intervals: Observations and implications.  Geology, v. 30, p. 35-38. (see Earth-Pages)

Crowley, T.J. & North, G.R., 1991.  Palaeoclimatology.  Oxford University Press, New York.

Crowley, T.J. and Berner, R.A., 2001.  CO2 and climate change.  Science, v. 292, p. 870-872. (see Earth-Pages)

Crowley, J.W. et al. 2015. Glacial cycles drive variations in the production of oceanic crust. Science doi:10.1126/science.1261508. (see Earth-Pages)

Cyranoski, D., 2006. Magical mantle tour. Nature, v. 440, p. 1108-1110. (see Earth-Pages)

Dalziel, I.W.D., 1995.  Earth before Pangea.  Scientific American (January), p. 38-43.

Davies, R.  et al., 2001.  Early Oligocene initiation of North Atlantic Deep Water formation.  Nature, v. 410, p. 917-920. (see Earth-Pages)

DeConto, R.M. & Pollard, D., 2003.  Rapid Cenozoic glaciation of Antarctica by declining atmospheric CO2, Nature, v. 421, p. 245-249. (see Earth-Pages)

Dobson, D.P. & Brodholt, J.P., 2005.  Subducted banded iron formations as a source of ultralow-velocity zones at the core-mantle boundary.  Nature, v. 434, p. 371-374. (see Earth-Pages)

Donnadieu, Y. et al., 2004.  A “snowball Earth” climate triggered by continental break-up through change in runoff.  Nature, v. 428, p. 303-306. (see Earth-Pages Playing games on Snowball Earth)

Drury, S.A., 2014. Ants and carbon sequestration. Earth Pages, September 20.

Eldrett, J.S et al. 2009. Increased seasonality through the Eocene to Oligocene transition in high northern latitudes. Nature, v. 459, p. 969-973 (see Earth-Pages)

Eyles, N., 1993.  Earth’s glacial record and its tectonic setting.  Earth-Science Reviews, v. 35, p. 1-248.

Eyles, N. & Januszczac, N., 2004.  “Zipper-rift”: a tectonic model for Neoproterozoic glaciations during breakup of Rodinia after 750 Ma.  Earth-Science Reviews, v. 65, p. 1-73. (see Earth-Pages For and against “Snowball Earth”)

Fanning, C.M & Link, P.K. 2004.  U-Pb SHRIMP ages of Neoproterozoic (Sturtian) glaciogenic Pocatello Formation, southeastern Idaho.  Geology, v. 32, p. 881-884) (see Earth-Pages)

Francis, P.W. & Dise, N.B., 1997.  Atmosphere, Earth and Life.  Open University, Milton Keynes.

François, L.M. & Walker, J.G.C., 1992.  Modelling the Phanerozoic carbon cycle and climate: Constraints from the 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratio of seawater. American Journal of Science, v. 292, p. 81-135.

Galeotti, S. et al., 2016. Antarctic Ice Sheet variability across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary climate transition. Science, v. 352, p. 76-80.

Garnero, E.J., 2004.  A new paradigm for the Earth’s core-mantle boundary.  Science, v. 304, p. 834-836.

Gasiewicz, A. & Slowakiewicz,M. (Eds), 2013. Palaeozoic Climate Cyscles: Their Evolutionary and Sedimentological Impact. Special Publication 376, Geological Society, London.

Heavens, N.G. et al., 2015. A model-based evaluation of tropical climate in Pangaea during the late Palaeozoic icehouse. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 426, p. 109-127.

Hesselbo, S.P. et al., 2000.  Massive dissociation of gas hydrate during a Jurassic ocean anoxic event.  Nature, v. 406, p. 392-395. (see Earth-Pages Methane hydrate – more evidence for the ‘greenhouse’ time bomb)

Hessler, A.M., Lowe, D.R., Jones, R.L. & Bird, D.K., 2004. A lower limit for atmospheric carbon dioxide levels 3.2 billion years ago. Nature, v. 428, p. 736-738.

Hirose, K., 2010. The Earth’s missing ingredient. Scientific American, v. 302 (June 2010 issue), p. 58-65. (see Earth-Pages)

Hoffman, K.-H. et al., 2004.  U-Pb zircon dates from the Neoproterozoic Ghaub Formation, Namibia: constraints on Marinoan glaciation.  Geology, v. 32, p. 817-820. (see Earth-Pages For and against “Snowball Earth”)

Hoffman, P. et al., 2005-9. Snowball Earth website.

Hren, M.T. et al. 2009. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope evidence for a temperate climate 3.42 billion years ago. Nature, v. 462, p. 205-208.

Huber, M. & Caballero, R., 2003.  Eocene El Niño: Evidence for robust tropical dynamics in the “hothouse”.  Science, v. 299, p. 877-881. (see Earth-Pages El Niño in the Eocene)

Hutko, A.R. et al. 2006. Seismic detection of folded, subducted lithosphere at the core-mantle boundary. Nature, 441, p. 333-336. (see Earth-Pages)

Huybers, P. & Wunsche, C. 2005.  Obliquity pacing of the late Pleistocene glacial terminations.  Nature, v. 434, p. 491-494. (see Earth-Pages)

Jacobson, A.D. & Blum, J.D., 2003.  relationship between mechanical erosion and atmospheric consumption in the New Zealand Southern Alps.  Geology, v. 31, p. 865-868. (see Earth-Pages Continental erosion and climate)

Jenkyns, H.C. et al. 2004.  High temperatures in the Late Cretaceous Arctic Ocean.  Nature, v. 432, p. 888-892. (see Earth-Pages)

Kasting, J.F., 2004.  When methane made climate.  Scientific American, v. 291, p. 52-59. (see Earth-Pages Earth’s early climate and methane)

Kasting, J.F. & Ono, S., 2006. Palaeoclimates: the first two billion years. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, v. 361, p. 917-929.

Kaufman, A.J., 1997.  An ice age in the tropics.  Nature, v. 386, p. 227-228.

Kauffman, A.J. & Xiao, S., 2003.  High CO2 levels in the Proterozoic atmosphere estimated from analyses of individual microfossils.  Nature, v.  425, p. 279-282. (see Earth-Pages Precambrian CO2 levels)

Kemp, D.B. et al. 2005. Astronomical pacing of methane release in the Early Jurassic period. Nature, v. 437, p. 396-399. (see Earth-Pages Milankovich forcing and Early Jurassic methane)

Kendall, B. et al. 2006. Re-Os geochronology of postglacial black shales in Australia: constraints on the timing of the ‘Sturtian’ glaciation. Geology, v. 34, p. 729-732. (see Earth-Pages)

Kennedy, M.J. et al., 2001.  Are Proterozoic cap carbonates and isotopic excursions a record of gas hydrate destabilization following Earth’s coldest intervals.  Geology, v. 29, p. 443-446. (see Earth-Pages Methane and escape from Snowball Earth)

Kennedy, M.J. et al., 2001.  Carbon isotope composition of Neoproterozoic glacial carbonates as a test of paleoceanographic models for snowball Earth phenomena.  Geology, v. 29, p. 1135-1138. (see Earth-Pages Methane and Snowball Earth)

Kerr, R.A. 2010. Snowball Earth has melted back to a profound wintry mix. Science, v. 327, p. 1186). (see Earth-Pages)

Knoll, A.H., 2000.  Learning to tell Neoproterozoic time.  Precambrian Research, v. 100, p. 3-20. (see Earth-Pages)

Kump, L.R. 2009. Tipping pointedly colder. Science, v. 323, p. 1175-1176.

Larson, R.L., 1995.  The mid-Cretaceous superplume episode.  Scientific American, (February), p. 66-70.

Lear, C.H. & Lunt, D.J., 2016. How Antarctica got its ice. Science, v. 352, p. 34-35.

Leather, J. et al., 2002.  Neoproterozoic snowball Earth under scrutiny: Evidence from the Fiq glaciation of Oman.  Geology, v. 30, p. 891-894. (see Earth-Pages)

Liu, Z.  et al., 2009. Global cooling during the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition. Science, v. 323, p. 1187-1190. (see Earth-Pages Climate at the Eocene-Oligocene (E-O) boundary)

Martin, A.P et al. 2013. A review of temporal constraints for the Palaeoproterozoic large, positive carbonate carbon isotope excursion (the Lomagundi–Jatuli Event). Earth-Science Reviews, v. 127, p. 242-261. (see Earth-Pages)

Maslin, M. et al. 2004.  Linking continental-slope failures and climate change: Testing the clathrate gun hypothesis.  Geology, v. 32, p. 53-56. (see Earth-Pages)

Miller, K.G. and 9 others 2005. The Phanerozoic record of global sea-level change. Science, v. 310, p. 1293-1298. (see Earth-Pages)

Nisbet, E. & Fowler, C.M.R., 2011. The evolution of the atmosphere in the Archaean and early Proterozoic. Chinese Science Bulletin, v. 56, p. 4-13.

Oberbeck, V.R., Marshall, J.R. & Aggarwal, H., 1993.  Impacts, tillites and the breakup of Gondwanaland.  Journal of Geology, v. 101, p. 1-19.

Parrish, J.T., 1992.  Climate of the supercontinent Pangea.  Journal of Geology, v. 101, p. 215-233.

Patterson, D., 1993.  Did Tibet cool the world?  New Scientist, (July 3), p. 29-33.

Pavlov, A.A. et al., 2003.  Methane-rich Proterozoic atmosphere?  Geology, v. 31, p. 87-90. (see Earth-Pages Precambrian warmth and methane)

Peltier et al. 2007. Snowball Earth prevention by dissolved organic carbon remineralization. Nature, v. 450, p. 813-818. (see Earth-Pages)

Pearson, P.N. et al. 2009. Atmospheric carbon dioxide through the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition. Nature, v. 461, p. 1110-1113. (see Earth-Pages)

Peate, D., 2009. Global dispersal of Pb by large-volume silicic eruptions in the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province. Geology, v. 37, p. 1071-1074. (see Earth-Pages)

Rasmussen, B. et al. 2013. Correlation of Paleoproterozoic glaciations based on U-Pb zircon ages for tuff beds in the Transvaal and Huronian Supergroups. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 382, p. 173-180. (see Earth-Pages)

Raymo, M.E., 1991.  Geochemical evidence supporting T.C. Chamberlin’s theory of glaciation.  Geology, v. 19, p. 344-347.

Retallack, G.J., 2001.  A 300-million-year record of atmospheric carbon dioxide from fossil plant cuticles.  Nature, v. 411, p, 287-290. (see Earth-Pages Plant respiration and climate)

Retallack, G.J., 2016. Ediacaran sedimentology and paleoecology of Newfoundland reconsidered. Sedimentary Geology, v. 333, p. 15-31. (see Earth-Pages)

Ridgwell, A.J. et al., 2003.  Carbonate deposition, climate stability and Neoproterozoic Ice Ages.  Science, v. 302, p. 859-862(see Earth-Pages)

Robert, F. & Chaussidon, M., 2006. A palaeotemperature curve for the Precambrian oceans based on silicon isotopes in cherts.. Nature, v. 443, p. 969-972. (see Earth-Pages Balmy shores of the Precambrian)

Rogers, J.J.W., 1996.  A history of continents in the last three billion years.  Journal of Geology, v. 104, p. 91-107.

Rooney, A.D. et al. 2015. A Cryogenian chronology: Two long-lasting synchronous Neoproterozoic glaciations. Geology, v. 43, p. 459-462. (see Earth-Pages)

Rosing, M.T. et al., 2006. The rise of continents – An essay on the geologic consequences of photosynthesis. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology v. 232, p. 99-113. (see Earth-Pages)

Rowley, D.B. & Currie, B.S. 2006. Palaeo-altimetry of the late Eocene to Miocene Lunpola basin, Central Tibet. Nature, v. 439, p. 677-681. (see Earth-Pages)

Roydon, L.H. et al. 2008. The geological evolution of the Tibetan Plateau. Science, v. 321, p. 1054-1058. (see Earth-Pages Tibetan Plateau reviewed)

Ruddiman, W.F. & Kutzbach, J.E., 1991.  Plateau uplift and climatic change.  Scientific American, (March), p. 42-50.

Runkel, A.C. et al. 2010. Tropical shoreline ice in the late Cambrian: implications for Earth’s climate between the Cambrian Explosion and the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event. GSA Today v.20 (November 2010), p. 4-10. (see Earth-Pages)

Secord, R. and 8 others 2012. Evolution of the earliest horses driven by climate change in the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Science, v. 335, p. 959-962. (see Earth-Pages)

Shaviv, N.J. & Veiser, J. , 2003.  Celestial driver of Phanerozoic climate?  GSA Today, July 2003, p. 4-10. (see Earth-Pages “Greenhouse” controls challenged)

Spicer, R.A. and 7 others, 2003.  Constant elevation of southern Tibet over the last 15 million years.  Nature, v. 421, p. 622-624. (see Earth-Pages)

Svenson, H. et al., 2004.  Release of methane from a volcanic basin as a mechanism for initial Eocene global warming.  Nature, v. 429, p. 542-545. (see Earth-Pages Smoking gun for end-Palaeocene global warming: an igneous connection)

Thiede, J. et al., 2011. Millions of years of Greenland ice sheet history recorded in ocean sediments. Polarforschung, v. 80, p. 141-159.

Thomas, D. et al., 2002. Warming the fuel for the fire: Evidence for the thermal dissociation of methane hydrate during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum.  Geology, v. 30, p.1067-1070. (see Earth-Pages)

Torsvik, T.H. et al. 2010. Diamonds sampled by plumes from the core–mantle boundary. Nature, v. 466, p. 352–355. (see Earth-Pages)

Tripati, A. et al. 2005. Eocene bipolar glaciation associated with global carbon cycle changes. Nature, v. 436, p. 341-346. (see Earth-Pages)

Tripati, A.K. et al. 2009. Coupling of CO2 and ice sheet stability over major climate transitions of the last 20 million years. Science, v. 326, p. 1394-1397. (see Earth-Pages)

Walter, M.R. et al., 2000.  Dating the 840-544 Ma Neoproterozoic interval by isotopes of strontium, carbon and sulphur in seawater, and some interpretative models.  Precambrian Research, v. 100, p. 371-433. (see Earth-Pages)

Wang et al. 2006. Ancient diets indicate significant uplift of southern Tibet after ca. 7Ma. Geology, v. 34, p. 309-312. (see Earth-Pages)

Wildman, R.A. et al., 2004.  Burning of forest materials under late Paleozoic high atmospheric oxygen levels.  Geology, v. 32, p. 457-460. (see Earth-Pages)

Willenbring, J.K. & von Blanckenburg, F. 2010. Long-term stability of global erosion rates and weathering during late-Cenozoic cooling. Nature, v. 465, p. 211-214. (see Earth-Pages Doubt cast on erosion and weathering theory of climate change)

Windley, B.F., 1995.  The Evolving Continents.  John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

Wood, W.T. et al., 2002.  Decreased stability of methane hydrates in marine sediments owing to phase-boundary roughness.  Nature, v. 420, p. 656-660. (see Earth-Pages)

Zachos, J.C. et al., 2001.  Climate response to orbital forcing across the Oligocene-Miocene boundary.  Science, V.  292, p. 274-278. (see Earth-Pages Astrology and ice)

Zambito, J.J. & Benison, K.C. 2013. Extremely high temperatures and paleoclimate trends recorded in Permian ephemeral lake halite. Geology, v. 41, p. 587-590. (see Earth-Pages)

Zheng, H.  et al., 2000.  Pliocene uplift of the northern Tibetan Plateau.  Geology, v. 28, p. 715-718. (see Earth-Pages)


Part VI: Life’s Ups and Downs

Aberhan, M. & Baumiller, T.K., 2003.  selective extinction among Early Jurassic bivalves: A consequence of anoxia.  Geology, v. 31, p. 1077-1080. (see Earth-Pages The selectivity of mass extinctions)

Ali, J.R. & Huber, M. 2010. Mammalian biodiversity on Madagascar controlled by ocean currents. Nature, v. 463, p. 653-656. (see Earth-Pages An old theory resurrected)

Alroy, J., 2010. The shifting balance of diversity among major marine animal groups. Science, v. 329, p. 1191-1194. (see Earth-Pages)

Alvarez, W., 1997.  T. Rex and the Crater of Doom.  Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Amthor, J.E. and 6 others, 2003.  Extinction of Cloudinia and Namacalathus at the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary in Oman.  Geology, v. 31, p. 431-434. (see Earth-Pages)

Anbar, A.D. & Knoll, A.H., 2002.  Proterozoic ocean chemistry and evolution: a bioinorganic bridge?  Science, v. 297, p. 1137-1142. (see Earth-Pages)

Archibald, D., 1993.  Were dinosaurs born losers?  New Scientist, (February 13), p. 32.

Arp, G. et al., 2001.  Photosynthesis-induced biofilm calcification and calcium concentrations in Phanerozoic oceans.  Science, v. 292, p. 1701-1704. (see Earth-Pages Carbonates and biofilms)

Anon, 1997.  What really killed the dinosaurs?  New Scientist, (August 16), p. 23-27.

Bartley, J.K. & Kah, C.L., 2004. Marine carbon reservoir, Corg-Ccarb coupling, and the evolution of the Proterozoic carbon cycle. Geology, v. 32, p. 129-132.

Bengtson, S. (editor), 1994.  Early Life on Earth.  Columbia University Press, New York.

Benner, S.A. et al., 2002.  Planetary biology – paleontological, geological and molecular histories of life.  Science, v.  296, p. 864-868. (see Earth-Pages Gigantic claims for “geogenomics”)

Benton, M. 2003.  Wipeout.  New Scientist, 26 April 2003, p. 38-41. (see Earth-Pages)

Benton M. J., 2005. When life nearly died: the greatest mass extinction of all time. Thames & Hudson, London.

Benton, M.J. et al., 2000. Quality of the fossil record through time. Nature,  v. 403, p. 534-537. (see Earth-Pages)

Beraldi-Campesi, H., 2013. Early life on land and the first terrestrial ecosystems. Ecological Processes, v. 2.

Berridge, M.J., 1997.  The AM and FM of calcium signalling.  Nature, v. 386, p. 759-760.

Blackburn, T.J. and 8 others, 2013. Zircon U-Pb geochronology links the end-Triassic extinction with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. Science, v. 340, p. 941-945. (see Earth-Pages)

Bottjjer, D.J. et al. 2008. Understanding mechanisms for the end-Permian mass extinction and the protracted Early Triassic aftermath and recovery. GSA Today, v. 18, September 2008 issue, p.4-10. (see Earth-Pages)

Brennan, S.T. et al., 2004.  Seawater chemistry and the advent of biocalcification.  Geology, v. 32, p. 473-476. (see Earth-Pages Calcium in the ocean and the Cambrian Explosion)

Briggs, D.E.G. & Crowther, P.R. (editors), 1990. Palaeobiology: A Synthesis.  Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.

Butterfield, N.J., 2007. Macroevolution and macroecology through deep time. Palaeontology, v. 50, p. 41-55.

Butterfield, N.J., 2011. Terminal developments in Ediacaran embryology. Science. V. 334, p. 1655-1656. (see Earth-Pages)

Canfield, D.E., 1998.  A new model for Proterozoic ocean chemistry.  Nature, v. 396, p. 450-453.

Canfield, D.E. et al., 2008. Ferruginous conditions dominated later Neoproterozoic deep-water chemistry. Science, v. 321, p. 949-952. (see Earth-Pages)

Chan, J-Y. et al., 2004.  Small Bilaterian Fossils from 40 to 55 Million Years Before the Cambrian.  Science, v. 305, p. 218-222. (see Earth-Pages Ancestral animal?)

Chen, J.-Y., 2009. Complex embryos displaying bilaterian characters from Precambrian Doushantuo phosphate deposits, Weng’an, Guizhou, China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, v. 106, p. 19056-19060.

Chen, J-Y. and 12 others, 2006. Phosphatized polar lobe-forming embryos from the Precambrian of southwest China. Science, v. 312, p. 1644-1646. (see Earth-Pages Precambrian bonanza for palaeoembryologists)

Condon, D. et al. 2005. U-Pb Ages from the Neoproterozoic Doushantuo Formation, China.  Science Express, 24 February 2005. (see Earth-Pages)

Conway Morris, S., 1990.  Palaeontology’s hidden agenda.  New Scientist, (August 11), p. 38-42.

Conway Morris, S., 2003.  Once we were worms.  New Scientist, 2 August 2003, p. 34-37. (see Earth-Pages Origins of the vertebrates)

Conway Morris, S. Peel, J. S., 1995. Articulated Halkieriids from the Lower Cambrian of North Greenland and Their Role in Early Protostome Evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, v. 347, 305–358.

Corsetti, F.A., Awramik, S.M. & Pierce, D. 2003. A complex microbiota from snowball Earth times: Microfossils from the Neoproterozoic Kingston Peak Formation, Death Valley, USAProceedings of the National Academy of Science, v. 100, p. 4399-4404. (see Earth-Pages)

Dahl, T.W. et al., 2010. Devonian rise in atmospheric oxygen correlated to the radiations of terrestrial plants and large predatory fish. Proceedings of the National Academy of the US, v. 107, p. 17911-17915. (see Earth-Pages)

Daeschler, E.B et al., 2006. A Devonian tetrapod-like fish and the evolution of the tetrapod body plan. Nature, v. 440, p. 757-763. (see Earth-Pages)

Dong, X. et al.,  2004.  Fossil embryos from the Middle and Late Cambrian period of Hunan, south China.  Nature, v. 427, p. 237-240. (see Earth-Pages)

Dutkiewicz, A. et al. 2006. Biomarkers from Huronian oil-bearing inclusions: An uncontaminated record of life before the Great Oxidation Event. Geology, v. 34, p. 437-440. (see Earth-Pages)

Ellwood, B.B. and 4 others, 2003.  Impact eject layer from the mid-Devonian: possible connection to global mass extinctions.  Science, v.  300, p. 1734-1737. (see Earth-Pages Middle Devonian extinction and impactite layer)

Eriksson, K.A., 1995.  Crustal growth, surface processes, and atmospheric evolution in the early Earth. In: Coward, M.P. & Ries, A.C. (editors) Early Precambrian Processes.  Geological Society Special Publication No 95, p. 11-25.

Erwin, D.H., 1996.  The mother of mass extinctions.  Scientific American, (July), p. 56-62.

Falkowski, P.G. and 8 others, 2005.  The rise of oxygen over the past 205 million years and the evolution of large placental mammals. Science, v. 309, p. 2202-2204. (see Earth-Pages Oxygen and mammalian evolution)

Fortey, R. & Chatterton, B.,  2003.  A Devonian trilobite with an eyeshade.  Science, v. 301, p. 1689. (see Earth-Pages Fossil oddities – a golfing trilobite and the ox-sized rodent)

Ganino, C. & Arndt, N.T. 2009. Climate change caused by degassing of sediments during the emplacement of large igneous provinces. Geology, v. 37, p. 323-326. (see Earth-Pages Gas source for flood basalts)

Gee, C.T., Sander, P.M & Petzelberger, B.E.M., 2003. A Miocene rodent nut cache in coastal dunes of the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany.  Palaeontology, v. 46, p. 1133-1149. (see Earth-Pages)

Gibling, M.R. & Davies, N.S., 2012. Palaeozoic landscapes shaped by plant evolution. Nature Geocience, v. 5, p. 99-105. (see Earth-Pages)

Gould, S.J., 1990.  Wonderful Life.  Hutchinson Radius, London.

Grasby, S.E. et al. 2011. Catastrophic dispersion of coal fly ash into oceans during the latest Permian extinction. Nature Geoscience, v. 4, p. 104-107. (see Earth-Pages)

Grey, K. et al., 2003.  Neoproterozoic biotic diversification: Snowball Earth or aftermath of the Acraman impact?  Geology, v. 31, p. 459-462. (see Earth-Pages)

Gutiérrez-Marco, J.C. et al., 2009. Giant trilobites and trilobite clusters from the Ordovician of Portugal. Geology, v. 37, p. 443-446. (see Earth-Pages Social behaviour among giant trilobites)

Hallam, A., 1990.  Mass-extinction processes: Earth-bound causes.  In: Briggs, D.E.G. & Crowther, P.R. (editors), Palaeobiology: A Synthesis.  Blackwell Sdcientific, Oxford, p. 160-164.

Halverson, G.P., Wade, B.P., Hurtgen, M.T. & Barovich, K.M., 2010. Neoproterozoic chemostratigraphy. Precambrian Research, v. 182, p. 337-350.

Harper, D.A.T et al. 2014. End Ordovician extinctions: A coincidence of causes. Gondwana Research, v. 25, p. 1294-1307. (see Earth-Pages)

Hecht, J., 2003.  Did a gamma-ray burst devastate life on Earth?  New Scientist, 27 September 2003, p. 17(see Earth-Pages Gamma-ray bursts and mass extinctions)

Heeren, F., 2011. Rise of the titans. Nature, v. 475, p. 159-161. (see Earth-Pages)

Hesselbo, S.P. et al., 2002.  Terrestrial and marine extinction at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary synchronized with major carbon-cycle perturbation: A link to initiation of massive volcanism?  Geology, v. 30, p. 251-254. (see Earth-Pages)

Holmes, R., 2009. The mother of us all. New Scientist, v. 202 (2 May Issue), p. 38-41. (see Earth-Pages)

Hsu, K.J., 1989.  Catastrophic extinctions and the inevitability of the improbable. Journal of the Geological Society of London, v. 146, p. 749-754.

Hu, Y. et al., 2005.  Large Mesozoic mammals fed on young dinosaurs.  Nature, v. 433, p. 149-152. (see Earth-Pages New predators on the Mesozoic block)

Huang, D. et al., 2012. Diverse transitional giant fleas from the Mesozoic era of China. Nature, v. 483, p. 201-204. (see Earth-Pages)

Huber, B.T. et al., 2002.  Deep-sea paleotemperature record of extreme warmth during the Cretaceous.  Geology, v. 30, p. 123-126. (see Earth-Pages)

Huey, R.B. & Ward, P.D. 2005.  Hypoxia, global warming and terrestrial Late Permian extinctions.  Science, v. 308, p. 398-401. (see Earth-Pages)

Huldtgren, T. et al., 2011. Fossilized nuclei and germination structures identify Ediacaran ‘animal embryos’ as encysting protists. Science. V. 334, p. 1696-1699. (see Earth-Pages)

Isozaki, Y., 1997.  Permo-Triassic boundary superanoxia and stratified superocean: Records from lost deep sea.  Science, v. 276, p. 235-238.

Isozaki, Y. et al., 2014. Beyond the Cambrian Explosion: from galaxy to genome.  Gondwana Research, v. 25, p. 881-883. (see Earth-Pages)

Ivany, L.C. et al.,  2000.  Cooler winters as a possible cause of mass extinctions at the Eocene/Oligocene boundary.  Nature, v. 407, 887-890. (see Earth-Pages)

Ivany, L.C. & Salawitch, R.J., 1993.  Carbon isotopic evidence for biomass burning at the K-T boundary.  Geology, v. 21, p. 487-490.

Janecka, J.E and 7 others, 2007. Molecular and genomic data identify the closest living relatives of primates. Science, v. 318, p. 792-794. (see Earth-Pages)

Jermiin, L.S. et al., 2005. Is the ‘Big Bang’ in animal evolution real? Science, v. 310, p. 1910-1911. (see Earth-Pages Is the Cambrian Explosion real evidence for an evolutionary burst?)

Joachimski, M.M & Buggisch, W., 2002.  Conodont apatite d18O signatures indicate climatic cooling as a trigger of the Late Devonian mass extinction.  Geology, v. 30, p. 711-714. (see Earth-Pages)

Jourdan, F. et al. 2014. High-precision dating of the Kalkarindji large igneous province, Australia, and synchrony with the Early-Middle Cambrian (Stage 4-5) extinction. Geology, v. 42, p. 543-546. (see Earth-Pages)

Kaiho, K. et al. 2001.  End-Permian catastrophe by bolide impact: Evidence of a gigantic release of sulfur from the mantle.  Geology, v. 29, p. 815-818. (see Earth-Pages)

Kaiho, K. et al. 2013. A forest fire and soil erosion event during the Late Devonian mass extinction. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 392, p. 272-280. (see Earth-Pages)

Kennedy, M.J. & Droser, M.L., 2011. Early Cambrian metazoans in fluvial environments, evidence of the non-marine Cambrian radiation. Geology, v. 39, p. 583-586. (see Earth-Pages)

Kenrick, P. & Crane, P.R., 1997.  The origin and early evolution of plants on land.  Nature, v. 389, p. 33-39

Kerr, R.A., 1993.  The great extinction gets greater.  Science, v. 262, p. 1370-1372.

Kerr, R.A., 2001.  Putting limits on the diversity of life.  Science, v. 292, p. 1481. (see Earth-Pages Doubts cast on the increase in diversity with time)

Kerr, R.A., 2002.  Inconstant ancient seas and life’s path.  Science, v. 298, p. 1165-1166. (see Earth-Pages)

Kerr, R.A., 2002. A trigger for the Cambrian Explosion?  Science, v. 298, p. 1547. (see Earth-Pages)

Kiehl, J.T. & Shields, C.A. 2005. Climate simulation of the latest Permian: Implications for mass extinction. Geology, v. 33, p. 757-760. (see Earth-Pages)

Kirchner, J.W. & Well, A., 2000. Delayed biological recovery from extinctions throughout the fossil record. Nature, vol.404, pp.177-180. (see Earth-Pages Delayed biological recovery from mass extinctions)

Knauth, L.P. & Kennedy, M.J. 2009. The Neoproterozoic greening of the Earth. Nature, v. 460, p. 728-732. (see Earth-Pages)

Knoll, A.H., 1996.  Breathing room for early animals.  Nature, v. 382, p. 111-112.

Koeberl, C. et al., 2004.  Geochemistry of the end-Permian extinction event in Austria and Italy: No evidence for an extraterrestrial component.  Geology, v. 32, p. 1053-1056. (see Earth-Pages)

Kump, L.R. et al., 2005.  Massive release of hydrogen sulfide to the surface ocean and atmosphere during intervals of oceanic anoxia.  Geology, v. 33, p. 397-400. (see Earth-Pages)

Li, C. et al. 2009. Magmatic anhydrite-sulfide assemblages in the plumbing system of the Siberian Traps. Geology, v. 37, p. 259-262. (see Earth-Pages Gas source for flood basalts)

Love, G.D. and 12 others, 2009. Fossil steroids record the appearance of Demospongiae during the Cryogenian period. Nature, v.  457, p. 718-721. (see Earth-Pages Snowball Earth and the major division among animals)

Lu, P.J. et al., 2006. Phanerozoic marine biodiversity dynamics in light of the incompleteness of the fossil record. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 103, p. 2736-2739. (see Earth-Pages)

Luo, Z-X., 2007. Transformation and diversification in early mammal evolution. Nature, v. 450, p. 1011-1019. (see Earth-Pages Mammal evolution makeover)

Mángano, M.G. et al. 2014. Trilobites in early Cambrian tidal flats and the landward expansion of the Cambrian explosion. Geology, v. 42, p. 143-146. (see Earth-Pages)

Marzoli, A and 14 others 2004.  Synchrony of the Central Atlantic magmatic province and the Triassic-Jurassic boundary climatic and biotic crisis.  Geology, v. 32, p. 973-976. (see Earth-Pages)

McKenzie, N.R. et al., 2014. Plate tectonic influences on Neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic climate and animal evolution. Geology, v. 42, p. 127-130. (see Earth-Pages)

Melott, A.L. & Thomas, B.C., 2009. Late Ordovician geographic patterns of extinction compared with simulations of astrophysical ionizing radiation damage. Paleobiology v. 35, p. 311–320.

Mercer, J.M. & Roth, L., 2003.  The effects of Cenozoic global change on squirrel phylogeny.  Science, v. 299, p. 1568-1572. (see Earth-Pages Squirrels and tectonics)

Meyer, K.M. et al. 2008. Biochemical controls on photic-zone euxinia during the end-Permian mass extinction. Geology, v. 36, p. 747-750. (see Earth-Pages)

Mundil, R et al. 2004.  Age and timing of the Permian mass extinction: U/Pb dating of closed system zircons.  Science, v. 305, p. 1760-1763. (see Earth-Pages)

Nicholas, C.J., 1996.  The Sr isotope evolution of the oceans during the “Cambrian Explosion”.  Journal of the Geological Society of London, v. 153, p. 243-254.

Officer, C., 1993.  Victims of volcanoes. New Scientist, (February 20), p. 34-38.

Olcott, A.N. et al., 2005. Biomarker evidence for photosynthesis during Neoproterozoic glaciation. Science, v. 310, p. 471-474. (see Earth-Pages)

Olsen, P.E. and 9 others, 2002.  Ascent of dinosaurs linked to an iridium anomaly at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary.  Science, v. 296, p. 1305-1307. (see Earth-Pages)

Pálfy, J.  and Smith, P.L., 2000. Synchrony between Early Jurassic extinction, oceanic anoxic event, and the Karoo-Ferrar flood basalt volcanism. Geology; v. 28, p. 747–750. (see Earth-Pages)

Payne, J.L. et al., 2004.  Large perturbations of the carbon cycle during recovery from the end-Permian extinction.  Science, v. 305, p. 506-509. (see Earth Pages)

Pecoits, E. et al., 2012. Bilaterian burrows and grazing behaviour at >585 million years ago. Science, v. 336, p. 1693-1696.

Peters, S. & Gaines, R.R., 2012. Formation of the ‘Great Unconformity’ as a trigger for the Cambrian explosion. Nature, v. 484, p. 363-366.

Peters, S.E. and Foote, M.,  2002.  Determinants of extinction in the fossil record.  Nature, v. 416, p. 420-424.

Phipps Morgan, J. Reston, T.J. & Ranero, C.R, 2004Contemporaneous mass extinctions, continental flood basalts, and ‘impact signals’: are mantle plume-induced lithospheric gas explosions the causal linkEarth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 217, p. 263-284. (see Earth Pages)

Porter, S.M., 2010. Calcite and aragonite seas and the de novo acquisition of carbonate skeletons. Geobiology, v. 8, p. 256-277.

Prasad, V. et al., 2005. Dinosaur coprolites and the early evolution of grasses and grazers. Science, v. 310, p. 1177-1180. (see Earth Pages Dinosaur dung, the Deccan Trap and grass)

Prave, A.R., 2002.  Life on land in the Proterozoic: evidence from the Torridonian rocks of northwest Scotland.  Geology, v.  30, p. 811-814. (see Earth Pages Continents colonised a billion years ago)

Rampino, M.R. & Caldeira, K., 1993.  Major episodes of geologic change: Correlations, time structure and possible causes.  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 114, p. 215-227.

Rasmussen, B. et al, 2002. 1.6 Ga U-Pb zircon ages for the Chorhat Sandstone, lower Vindhayan, India: Possible implications for early evolution of animals.  Geology, v. 30, p. 103-106. (see Earth Pages)

Ray, J.S. et al. 2002.  U-Pb zircon dating and Sr isotope systematics of the Vindhayan Supregroup, India.  Geology, v. 30, p. 131-134. (see Earth Pages)

Rees, P. McA., 2002.  Land-plant diversity and the end-Permian mass extinction.  Geology, v. 30, p. 827-830. (see Earth Pages)

Retallack, G.J., 2016. Ediacaran sedimentology and paleoecology of Newfoundland reconsidered. Sedimentary Geology, v. 333, p. 15-31. (see Earth Pages)

Renne, P.R. et al. 2015. State shift in Deccan volcanism at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, possibly induced by impact. Science, v. 350, p. 76-78. (see Earth Pages)

Riding, R. et al., 2014. Identification of an Archean marine oxygen oasis. Precambrian Research, v. 251, p. 232-237. (see Earth Pages)

Rohde, R.A. & Muller, R.A., 2005.  Cycles in fossil diversity.  Nature, v. 434, p. 208-210. (see Earth Pages)

Rose, S., 1997.  Lifelines: Biology, Freedom, Determinism.  Penguin, London.

Rothman, D.H. et al. 2014. Methanogenic burst in the end-Permian carbon cycle. Proceedings of the National Academy of the United States, v. 111, p. 5462-5467. (see Earth Pages)

Rubinstein, C.  et al. 2010. Early Middle Ordovician evidence for land plants in Argentina (eastern Gondwana). New Phytologist, v. 188, p. 365-369. (see Earth-Pages)

Rust, J., 2000.  Fossil record of mass moth migration.  Nature, 405, p. 530-531. (see Earth Pages)

Sahoo, S.K et al., 2012. Ocean oxygenation in the wake of the Marinoan glaciation. Nature, v. 489, p. 546-549. (see Earth Pages)

Sanches-Villagra, M.R. et al., 2003.  The anatomy of the world’s largest extinct rodent.  Science, v. 301, p. 1708-1710. (see Earth Pages Fossil oddities – a golfing trilobite and the ox-sized rodent)

Sawaki, Y. et al., 2014. The anomalous Ca cycle in the Ediacaran ocean: Evidence from Ca isotopes preserved in carbonates in the Three Gorges area, South China. Gondwana Research, v. 25, p. 1070-1089. (see Earth Pages)

Schmitz, B. and 8 others, 2008. Asteroid breakup linked to the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event. Nature Geoscience, v. 1, p. 49-53. (see Earth Pages Life perked up by repeated impacts)

Schulte, P. and 40 others 2010. The Chicxulub asteroid impact and mass extinction at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Science, v. 327, p. 1214-1218. (see Earth Pages)

Sephton, M.A. et al., 2005. Catastrophic soil erosion during the end-Permian biotic crisis. Geology, v. 33, p. 941-944. (see Earth Pages)

Self, S. et al. 2008. Sulfur and chlorine in late Cretaceous Deccan Magmas and eruptive gas release. Science, v. 319, p. 1654-1657. (see Earth Pages)

Sharpton, V.L. & Ward, P.D. (editors), 1990.  Global catastrophes in Earth history. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 247.

Sheldon, N.D. & Retallack, G.J., 2002.  Low oxygen levels in earliest Triassic soils. Geology, v. 30, p. 919-922. (see Earth Pages Post-apocalypse weathering in the Early Triassic)

Shu, D.-G. et al.  2001.  Primitive deuterostomes from the Chenjiang lagersttätte (Lower Cambrian, China).  Nature, v. 414, p. 419-424. (see Earth Pages New phyllum from Chinese Cambrian)

Shubin, N.H. et al., 2006. The pectoral fin of Tiktaalik roseae and the origin of the tetrapod limb. Nature, v. 440, p. 764-771. (see Earth Pages)

Silver, L.T. & Schultz, P.H. (editors), 1982.  Geological implications of impacts of large asteroids and comets on the Earth.  Geological Society of America, Special Paper 190.

Skelton, P.W., Spicer, R.A. & Rees, A., 1997.  Evolving Life and the Earth. Open University, Milton Keynes.

Smith, M.R. & Caron J.-B., 2015. Hallucigenia’s head and the pharyngeal armature of early ecdysozoans. Nature, v. 523, p. 75-78. (see Earth Pages)

Smith, R.M.H. and Ward, P.D.,  2001.  Pattern of vertebrate extinctions across an event bed at the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Karoo Basin of South Africa.  Geology, v. 29, p. 1147-1150. (see Earth Pages)

Solé, R.V., Manrubia, S.C., Benton, B. & Bak, P., 1997.  Self-similarity of extinction statistics in the fossil record.  Nature, v. 388. p.764-767.

Stigall, A. L., 2012. Speciation collapse and invasive species dynamics during the Late Devonian ‘Mass Extinction’. GSA Today, v. 22(1), p. 4-9. (see Earth Pages)

Strother, P.K. et al. 2011. Earth’s earliest non-marine eukaryotes. Nature, v. 473, p. 505-509. (see Earth Pages)

Sumner, D.Y., 1996.Were kinetics of Archaean calcium carbonate precipitation related to oxygen concentration?  Geology, v. 24, p. 119-122.

Svenson, H. et al. 2009. Siberian gas venting and the end-Permian environmental crisis. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 277, p. 490-500. (see Earth Pages)

Swinburne, N., 1993.  It came from outer space.  New Scientist, (February 20), p. 28-32.

Szathmáry, E. & Maynard Smith, J., 1995.  The major evolutionary transitions.  Nature. v. 374, p. 227-232.

Trotter, J.A. et al., 2008. Did cooling oceans trigger Ordovician biodiversification? Evidence from conodont thermometry. Science, v. 321, p. 550-554. (see Earth Pages The Great Ordovician Diversification)

Turchyn, A.V. & Schrag, D.P. 2004.  Oxygen isotope constraints on the sulfur cycle over the past 10 million years.  Science, v. 303, p. 2004-2007. (see Earth Pages Sulphur cycling and sea-level change)

Twitchett, R.J. et al.,  2001.  Rapid and synchronous collapse of marine and terrestrial ecosystems during the end-Permian biotic crisis.  Geology, v.  29, p. 351-354. (see Earth Pages)

Vannucchi, P. et al. 2015. Direct evidence of ancient shock metamorphism at the site of the 1908 Tunguska event. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 409, p. 168-174. (See Earth-Pages)

Vreeland, R.H. et al., 2000.  Isolation of a 250 million-year-old halotolerant bacterium from a primary salt crystal.  Nature, v. 407, p. 897-900. (see Earth Pages The undead)

Wacey, D., Kilburn, M.R., Saunders, M., Cliff, J. & Brazier, M.D., 2011. Microfossils of sulphur-metabolizing cells in 3.4-billion-year-old rocks of Western Australia. Nature Geoscience, v. 4, p. 698-702.

Wei, Y. and 10 others 2014. Oxygen escape from the Earth during geomagnetic reversals: Implications to mass extinction. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 394, p. 94-98. (see Earth Pages)

Weidlich, O. et al., 2003.  Permian-Triassic boundary interval as a model for forcing marine ecosystem collapse by long-term atmospheric oxygen drop.  Geology, v. 31, p. 961-964. (see Earth Pages)

Wille, M. et al., 2008. Hydrogen sulphide release to surface waters at the Precambrian/Cambrian boundary. Nature, v. 453, p. 767-769. (see Earth Pages)

Wing, S.L. et al. 2005. Transient floral change and rapid global warming at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. Science, v. 310, p. 993-996. (see Earth Pages)

Wood, R.A., 2011. Paleoecology of the earliest skeletal metazoan communities: Implications for early biomineralization. Earth-Science Reviews, v. 106, p. 184-190.

Ye, Q. et al., 2015. The survival of benthic macroscopic phototrophs on a Neoproterozoic snowball Earth. Geology, v. 43, p. 507-510. (see Earth Pages)

Yuan, X. et al., 2011. An early Ediacaran assemblage of macroscopic and morphologically differentiated eukaryotes. Nature, v. 470 , p. 390-393. (see Earth Pages)

Yuan, X. et al., 2005.  Lichen-like symbiosis 600 million years ago.  Science, v. 308, p. 1017-1020. (see Earth Pages)

Zachos, J.C. et al. 2005.  Rapid acidification of the ocean during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum.  Science, v. 308, p. 1611-1614. (see Earth Pages Acidification of the oceans)

Zhang, X. et al., 2014. Triggers for the Cambrian explosion: Hypotheses and problems. Gondwana Research, v. 25, p. 896-909. (see Earth-Pages)


Part VII: The People’s Planet

Abbate, E. and 16 others, 1998. A one-million-year-old Homo cranium from the Danakil (Afar) Depression of Eritrea. Nature, v. 393, p. 458-460.

Abe-Ouchi, A. et  al. 2013. Insolation-driven 100,000-year glacial cycles and hysteresis of ice-sheet volume. Nature, v. 500, p. 190-193. (see Earth-Pages)

Ackert, R.P et al. 2008. Patagonian glacier response during the late glacial-Holocene transition. Science, v. 321, p. 392-395. (see Earth Pages Climate shock of the Younger Dryas)

Adcock, G.L. et al. 2001.  Mitochondrial DNA sequences in ancient Australians: Implications for modern human origins.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 98, p. 537-542. (see Earth-Pages)

Alba, D.M., Moya-Sola, S, & Kohler, M., 2001. Canine reduction in the Miocene hominoid Oreopithecus bambolii: behavioural and evolutionary implication. Journal of Human Evolution, v. 40, p. 1-16.

Alemseged, Z. et al. 2006. A juvenile early hominin skeleton from Dikika, Ethiopia. Nature, v. 443, p. 296-301. (see Earth-Pages)

Alley, R. B., 2000. The Younger Dryas cold interval as viewed from central Greenland. Quaternary Science Reviews, v. 19, p. 213–226.

Alperson-Afil, N., 2008. Continual fire-making by Hominins at Gesher Benot Ya‘aqov, Israel. Quaternary Science Reviews, v. 27, p. 1733–1739. (see Earth-Pages)

Atkinson, Q. D., 2011. Phonemic diversity supports a serial founder effect model of language expansion from Africa. Science, v. 332, p. 346-349.

Aubert, M. and 9 others 2014. Pleistocene cave art from Sulawesi, Indonesia. Nature, v. 514, p. 223-227. (see Earth-Pages)

Backwell, L. & d’Errico, F., 2008. Early Hominid Bone Tools from Drimolen, South Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science, v. 35, p. 2880-2894.

Bakke, J. et al. 2009. Rapid oceanic and atmospheric changes during the Younger Dryas cold period. Nature Geoscience, v. 2, p. 202-205. (see Earth-Pages)

Bahn, P.G., 1996.  Further back down under.  Nature, v. 383, p. 577-578.

Balter, M. 2005. Are humans still evolving? Science, v. 309, p. 234-237. (see Earth-Pages)

Balter, M. 2009. Early start for human art? Ochre may revise timeline. Science, v. 323, p. 569. (see Earth-Pages)

Balter, M. 2010. Candidate human ancestor from South Africa sparks praise and debate. Science. v. 328, p. 154-155 (see Earth-Pages Other rich hominin pickings)

Balter, M. and Gibbons, A., 2002.  Becoming human.  Science, v. 295, p. 1214-1225. (see Earth-Pages)

Bartholoet, J. 2012. Swept from Africa to the Sahara. Scientific American, v. 306 (February 2012), p. 34-39. (see Earth-Pages)

Bennett, K.D. et al., 2000.  The last glacial-Holocene transition in Southern Chile.  Science, 290, 325-328. (see Earth-Pages News from the South)

Bennett, M.R. and 11 others 2009. Early hominin foot morphology based on 1.5-million-year old footprints from Ileret, Kenya. Science, v. 323, p. 1197-1201. (see Earth-Pages Walking with the ancestors)

Berger, A. and Loutre, M.F., 2002.  An exceptionally long interglacial ahead?  Science, v. 297, p. 1287-1288. (see Earth-Pages)

Berger, L.R. 2013. The mosaic nature of Australopithecus sediba. Science, v. 340, p. 163. (see Earth-Pages)

Berger, L. R. and 46 others 2015. Homo naledi, a new species of the genus Homo from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa. eLife (see Earth-Pages)

Benazzi, S. And 13others, 2011. Early dispersal of modern humans in Europe and implications for Neanderthal behaviour. Nature, v. 479, p. 525-528. (see Earth-Pages)

Berna, F, et al.,2012. Microstratigraphic evidence of in situ fire in the Acheulean strata of Wonderwerk Cave, Northern Cape province, South Africa.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, v. 109, p. E1215–E1220.

Bischoff, J.L. et al., 2007. High-resolution U-series dates from the Sima de los Huesos hominids yields 600 kyrs: implications for the evolution of the early Neanderthal lineage. Journal of Archaeological Science, v. 34, p. 763-770. (see Earth-Pages)

Blunier, T. and Brook, E.J., 2001.  Timing of millennial-scale climate change in Antarctica and Greenland during the last glacial period. Science, v. 291, p. 109-112. (see Earth-Pages Mismatches from north to south proven)

Boaz, N.T. & Ciochon, R.L., 2004. Dragon Bone Hill: An Ice Age Saga of Homo erectus. Oxford University Press, Oxford. (see Earth-Pages)

Boyd, P.W. et al. 2000.  A mesoscale phytoplankton bloom in the polar Southern Ocean stimulated by iron fertilization.  Nature,  407, 695-702. (see Earth Pages News from the South)

Bradley, R., 2015. Paleoclimatology: Reconstructing Climates of the Quaternary, 3rd ed. Academic Press: Kidlington, Oxford.

Bradshaw Foundation, Web, World Heritage Rock Art Centre

Bramble, D.M. & Lieberman, D.E. 2004.  Endurance running and the evolution of HomoNature, v.  432, p. 345-352. (see Earth-Pages A discovery that will run and run?)

Brauer, A. et al., 2008. An abrupt wind shift in western Europe at the onset of the Younger Dryas cold period. Nature Geoscience, v. 1, 520-523. (see Earth Pages Climate shock of the Younger Dryas)

Brigham-Grette, J and 15 others, 2013. Pliocene warmth, polar amplification, and stepped Pleistocene cooling recorded in NE Arctic Russia. Science, v. 340, p. 1421-1426. (see Earth-Pages)

Broecker W.S., 1999. What If the Conveyor Were to Shut Down? GSA Today 9 (1): 1–7

Broecker, W.S., 2003.  Does the trigger for abrupt climate change reside in the ocean or in the atmosphere?  Science, v. 300, p. 1519-1522. (see Earth-Pages Broecker reviews climate triggers)

Broeker, W.S. 2006. Was the Younger Dryas triggered by a flood? Science, v. 312, p. 1146-1148 (see Earth-Pages)

Brown, P et al. 2004.  A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia.  Nature, v. 431, p. 1055-1061. (see Earth-Pages)

Burney, D.A., 1993.  Recent animal extinctions: recipes for disaster.  American Scientist, v. 81, p. 530-541.

Burns, S.J.  et al., 2003.  Indian Ocean climate and an absolute chronology over Dansgaard/Oeschger events 9 to 13.  Science, v. 301, p. 1365-1367. (see Earth-Pages)

Caspari, R. & Lee, S.-H. 2004.  Older age becomes common late in human evolutionProceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA, v. 101, p. 10895-10900. (see Earth-Pages)

Cerling T.E., et al., 2011. Diet of Paranthropus boisei in the early Pleistocene of East Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 108, p. 9337–9341.

Cerling, T.E. and 9 others 2011. Woody cover and hominin environments in the past 6 million years. Nature, v. 476, p. 51-56. (see Earth-Pages)

Clark, J.D. and 12 others, 2003.  Stratigraphic, chronological and behavioural contexts of Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia.  Nature, v. 423, p. 747-752. (see Earth-Pages)

Clark, P.U. et al., 2002.  The role of thermohaline circulation in abrupt climate change.  Nature, v. 415, p. 863-869. (see Earth-Pages)

Conway Morris, S. 2002.  We were meant to be….  New Scientist, 16 November 2002, p. 26-29. (see Earth-Pages Is evolution predisposed to intelligent beings?)

Cooper, A. et al. 2015. Abrupt warming events drove Late Pleistocene Holarctic megafaunal turnover. Science. (see Earth-Pages)

Copeland, S.R. et al., 2011. Strontium isotope evidence for landscape use by early hominins. Nature, v. 474, p. 76-78. (see Earth-Pages Strontium isotopes and australopithecine habits)

Coppens, Y., 1994.  East side story: the origin of humankind.  Scientific American, (May), p. 62-69.

Crowley, T.J., 2000.  Causes of climate change over the past 1000 years.  Science, v. 289, p 270-277. (see Earth-Pages)

Crowley, J.W. et al. 2015. Glacial cycles drive variations in the production of oceanic crust. Science doi:10.1126/science.1261508. (see Earth-Pages)

Crucifix, M. 2016. Earth’s narrow escape from a big freeze. Nature, v. 529, p. 162-163. (see Earth-Pages)

Curnoe, D. And 16 others 2012. Human Remains from the Pleistocene-Holocene Transition of Southwest China Suggest a Complex Evolutionary History for East Asians. PLoS ONE, v. 7.

Cysouw, M., Dediu, D. & Moran, S., 2012. Comment on ‘Phonemic diversity supports a serial founder effect model of language expansion from Africa’. Science, v. 335, p. 657

Daley, T.J. et al. 2009. Terrestrial climate signal of the “8200 yr B.P. cold event” in the Labrador Sea region. Geology, v. 37, p. 831-834. (see Earth-Pages Just when you think it’s going to turn out alright…)

D’Anastasio R, Wroe S, Tuniz C, Mancini L, Cesana DT, Dreossi D, et al. 2013. Micro-Biomechanics of the Kebara 2 Hyoid and Its Implications for Speech in Neanderthals. PLoS ONE, v. 8, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082261

Dansgaard, W. and 10 others, 1993.  Evidence for general instability of past climate from a 250-kyr ice-core record.  Nature, v. 364, p. 218-220.

Dennell, R., 1997.  The world’s oldest spears.  Nature, v. 385, p. 767-768.

Denton, G.H. et al. 2010. The last glacial termination. Science, v. 328, p. 1652-1656. (see Earth-Pages)

Dickens, G.R., Castillo, M.M. & Walker, J.C.G., 1997.  A blast of gas in the latest Paleocene: simulating first-order effects of massive dissociation of oceanic methane hydrate.  Geology, v. 25, p. 259-262.

Dirks, P.H.G.M. and 23 others 2015. Geological and taphonomic context for the new hominin species Homo naledi from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa. eLife, (see Earth-Pages)

Dupanloup, I. et al., 2003.  A recent shift from polygyny to monogamy in humans is suggested by the analysis of worldwide Y-chromosome diversity.  Journal of Molecular Evolution, v. 57, p. 85-97. (see Earth-Pages The “Big Daddy” theory of human evolution!)

Drayna, D. 2005. Founder mutations. Scientific American, v. 293(4), p. 60-67. (see Earth-Pages Congenital disease, human migration and population growth)

Dunn, R., 2012. Intimately yours. New Scientist, v. 216, 3 November issue, p. 36-39. (see Earth-Pages)

Dupont, L.M. et al.,  2001.  Mid-Pleistocene environmental change in tropical Africa began as early as 1.05 Ma.  Geology, v.  29, p. 1195-198. (see Earth-Pages Start of Pleistocene environmental change in tropical Africa)

Engels, F., 1876. The Part Played by Labour in the Transition from Ape to Man.

EPICA, 2004.  Eight glacial cycles from an Antarctic ice core.  Nature, v. 429, p. 623-628. (see Earth-Pages)

Falkowski, P. and 16 others 2000.  The global carbon cycle: a test of our knowledge of earth as a system.  Science, 290, 291-296. (see Earth-Pages No escape from global warming?)

Falush, D. and 17 others, 2003.  Traces of human migrations in Helicobacter pylori populations.  Science, v.  299, p. 1582-1585. (see Earth-Pages)

Fan, S., Hansen, M.E.B, Lo, Y. & Tishkoff, S.A., 2016. Going global by adapting local: A review of recent human adaptation. Science, v. 354, p. 54-58. doi:10.1126/science.aaf5098

Farquhar, G.D., 1997.  Carbon dioxide and vegetation.  Science, v. 278, p. 1411.

Feakins, S.J. et al., 2005. Biomarker records of late Neogene changes in northeast African vegetation. Geology, v. 33, p. 977-980. (see Earth-Pages Biogeochemical evidence for vegetation change when hominins evolved)

Fedorov, A.V. et al. 2006. The Pliocene paradox (mechanisms for a permanent El Niño). Science, v. 312, p. 1485-1489. (see Earth-Pages)

Ferring, R. and 9 others, 2011. Earliest human occupations at Dmanisi (Georgian Caucasus) dated to 1.85-1.78 Ma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 108, p. 10432-10436.

Finney, S.C. & Edwards, L.E. 2016. The “Anthropocene” epoch: Scientific decision or political statement? GSA Today, v. 26 (3–4). (see Earth-Pages)

Firestone, R.B. and 25 others 2007. Evidence for an extraterrestrial impact 12,900 years ago that contributed to the megafaunal extinctions and the Younger Dryas cooling. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 104, 16016-16021. (see Earth-Pages)

Frost, B.W., 1996.  Phytoplankton bloom on iron rations.  Nature, v. 383, p. 475-476.

Galaasen, E.V. and 7 others 2014. Rapid reductions in North Atlantic Deep Water during the peak of the last interglacial period. Science, v. 343, 1129-1132. (see Earth-Pages)

Ganopolski, A. et al., 2016. Critical insolation-CO2 relation for diagnosing past and future glacial inception. Nature, v. 529, p. 200-203. (see Earth-Pages)

Gibbons, A., 1997.  Tracing the identity of the first toolmakers.  Science, v. 276, p. 32.

Gibbons, A. 2016. Neanderthal genes linked to modern diseases. Science, v. 351, p. 648-9. (see Earth-Pages)

Gibert, L. et al., 2013. Evidence for an African-Iberian mammal dispersal during the pre-evaporitic Messinian. Geology, v. 41, p. 691-694. (see Earth-Pages)

Gill, J.L. et al., 2009. Pleistocene megafaunal collapse, novel plant communities, and enhanced fire regimes in North America. Science, v. 326, p. 1100-1103. (see Earth-PagesFungal clue to fate of North American megafauna)

Green, R.E. and 55 others 2010. A draft sequence of the Neandertal genome. Science, v.  328, p. 710-722. (see Earth-Pages)

Gonzalez, S. et al. 2006. Human footprints in Central Mexico older than 40,000 years. Quaternary Science Reviews, v. 25, p. 201-222.  (see Earth-Pages Very old human footprints in Mexico?)

Goren-Inbar, N. et al., 2004.  Evidence of hominin control of fire at Gesher Benot Ya’aqov, Israel.  Science, v. 304, p. 725-727. (see Earth-Pages)

Goudie, A. & Viles, H., 1997.  The Earth Transformed: An Introduction to Human Impacts on the Environment.  Blackwell, Oxford.

Guthrie, R.D., 2004.  Radiocarbon evidence of mid-Holocene mammoths stranded on an Alaskan Bering Sea island.  Nature, v. 429, p. 746-749. (see Earth-Pages The case of the stranded, tiny mammoths)

Haile-Selassie, J. et al. 2004.  Late Miocene teeth from Middle Awash, Ethiopia, and early hominid dental evolution.  Science, v. 303, p. 1503-1505. (see Earth-Pages Dental records of earliest hominids)

Haile-Selassie, Y et al., 2015. New species from Ethiopia expands Middle Pliocene hominin diversity. Nature, v. 521, p. 483-488. (see Earth-Pages Note added 28 May 2015🙂

Hammer, M.F. 2013. Human hybrids. Scientific American, v. 308 (May 2013), p. 52-57. (see Earth Pages)

Harari, Y.N., 2011. Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind. Vintage Books, London.

Harman, K. 2013. Shattered ancestry. Scientific American, v. 308 (February 2013), p. 36-43. (see Earth-Pages)

Harmand, S. and 20 others 2015. 3.3-million-year-old stone tools from Lomekwi 3, West Turkana, Kenya. Nature, v. 521, p. 310-315. (see Earth-Pages)

Harvati, K. et al. 2011. The Later Stone Age Calvaria from Iwo Eleru, Nigeria: Morphology and Chronology. PLoS ONE, v.  6: e24024. (see Earth-Pages)

Haug, G.H. et al. 2005.  North Pacific seasonality and the glaciation of North America 2.7 million years ago.  Nature, v. 433, p. 821-825. (see Earth-Pages)

Henderson., G., 1998.  Deep freeze.  New Scientist, (February 14), p. 28-32.

Henry, A. G. et al., 2010. Microfossils in calculus demonstrate consumption of plants and cooked foods in Neanderthal diets (Shanidar III, Iraq; Spy I and II, Belgium), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 108, p. 486–491. (see Earth-Pages)

Henry, A.G and 8 others, 2012. The diet of Australopithecus sediba, Nature, v. 487, p. 90-93. (see Earth-Pages)

Herbert, T.D. and 8 others, 2001.  Collapse of the California Current during glacial maxima linked to climate change on land.  Science, v. 293, p. 71-76. (see Earth-Pages)

Higham, T. And 12 others 2011. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in northwestern Europe. Nature, v. 479, p. 521-524. (see Earth-Pages)

Higham, T. et al. 2012. Testing models for the beginnings of the Aurignacian and the advent of art and music: the radiocarbon chronology of Geissenclösterle. Journal of Human Evolution, v. 62, p. 664-676 (see Earth-Pages)

Higham, T. and 47 others. The timing and spatiotemporal patterning of Neanderthal disappearance. Nature, v. 512, p. 306-309. (see Earth-Pages)

Hobolth, A., Christensen, O. F., Mailund, T. & Schierup, M. H., 2007. Genomic relationships and speciation times of human, chimpanzee, and gorilla inferred from a coalescent hidden Markov model. PLoS Genetics, v. 3.

Jakobsson, M. and 24 others, 2016. Evidence for an ice shelf covering the central Arctic Ocean during the penultimate glaciations. Nature Communications, v. 7, (see Earth-Pages)

James, S.R., 1989. Hominid Use of Fire in the Lower and Middle Pleistocene: A Review of the Evidence. Current Anthropology, v. 30, p. 1–26.

Jaubert, J. and 19 others, 2016. Early Neanderthal constructions deep in Bruniquel Cave in southwestern France. Nature, v. 533,  online publication, doi:10.1038/nature18291(see Earth-Pages)

Jones, S., Martin, R.D. & Pilbeam, D.R., 1992.  The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Joordens, J.C.A. and 9 others, 2015. Homo erectus at Trinil on Java used shells for tool production and engraving. Nature, v. 518, p. 228-231. (see Earth-Pages)

Kaplan, M.R. and 9 others 2010. Glacier retreat in New Zealand during the Younger Dryas stadial. Nature, v. 467, p. 194-197. (see Earth-Pages)

Kappelman, J., 1997.  They might be giants.  Nature, v. 387, p. 126-127.

Kappelman, J. and 8 others 2016. Perimortem fractures in Lucy suggest mortality from fall out of tall tree. Nature, v. 537, published online 29 August 2016, doi:10.1038/nature19332. (see Earth-Pages)

Kastner, T.P. & Goñi, M.A., 2003.  Constancy in the vegetation of the Amazon Basin during the late Pleistocene: Evidence from the organic matter composition of Amazon deep sea fan sediments.  Geology, v. 31, p. 291-294. (see Earth-Pages)

Kennett, D.J. and 8 others 2009. Nanodiamonds in the Younger Dryas boundary sediment layer. Science, v. 323, p. 94. (see Earth-Pages)

Kerr, R.A., 2010. Mammoth-killer impact flunks out, Science, v. 329, p. 1140-1141. (see Earth-Pages)

Kerr, R.A. & Stone, R., 2009. A human trigger for the great quake of Sichuan? Science, v. 323, p. 322. (see Earth-Pages Chinese dam implicated in the 2008 Sichuan great earthquake)

Kingdon, J., 1993.  Self-made Man and His Undoing.  Simon & Schuster, London.

Kleiner, K.  2000.  Bigfoot’s buttocks.  New Scientist, 23/30 December 200 issue, p. 8. (see Earth-Pages Discovery of huge primate buttock print)

Kleiven, H.F. et al. 2008. Reduced North Atlantic deep water and the glacial Lake Agassiz outburst. Science, v. 319, p. 60-64(see Earth-Pages Holocene cold spell and glacial lake burst)

Knight, C. Power, C. & Watts, I., 1995.  The human symbolic revolution: a Darwinian account>  Cambridge Archaeological Journal, v. 5, p. 75-114.

Kohn, M. & Mithen, S., 1999. Hand axes: products of sexual selection? Antiquity, v. 73, p. 518-526. (see Earth-Pages)

Krause, J. et al. 2010. The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of an unknown hominin from Southern Siberia. Nature, v. 464, p. 894-897. (see Earth Pages Other rich hominin pickings)

Kuhlwilm, M. and 21 others 2016. Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals. Nature, v. 530, p. 429-433. (see Earth-Pages)

Land, C.S. et al. 2013. Volcanic ash reveals time transgressive abrupt climate change during the Younger Dryas. Geology, v. 41, p. 1251-1254.

Lawler, A. 2014. In search of Green Arabia. Science, v. 345, p. 994-999. (see Earth-Pages)

Lazar, B. & Stein, M., 2011. Freshwater on the route of hominins out of Africa revealed by U-Th in Red Sea corals. Geology, v. 39, p. 1067-1070. (see Earth-Pages)

Leakey, R.E. & Lewin, R., 1992.   Origins Reconsidered: In Search of What Makes Us Human.  Little, Brown & Co., London.

Leakey, M.G. et al. 2012. New fossils from Koobi Fora in northern Kenya confirm taxonomic diversity in early Homo. Nature, v. 488, p. 201-204. (see Earth-Pages Quite a crowd)

Lee, M-Y. et al., 2004.  First Toba supereruption revival.  Geology, v. 32, p. 61-64. (see Earth-Pages Super-eruptions and climate)

Lehman, S., 1996.  True grit spells double trouble.  Nature, v. 382, p. 2527.

Lepre, C.J et al., 2011. An earlier origin for the Acheulian. Nature, v. 477, p. 82-85. (see Earth-Pages)

Lewin, R., 1994.  Human origins: the challenge of Java’s skulls.  New Scientist, (May 7), p. 36-40.

Lewin, R., 1995.  Bones of contention.  New Scientist, (November 4), p. 14-15.

Lewis, S.J. & Maslin, M.A. 2015. Defining the Anthropocene. Nature, v. 519, p. 171-180. (see Earth-Pages)

Liu, W. and 13 others 2015. The earliest unequivocally modern humans in southern China. Nature, v. 526, p. 696–699 doi:10.1038/nature15696. (see Earth-Pages)

Liu, Z. and 13 others 2009. Transient simulation of last deglaciation with a new mechanism for Bølling-Allerød warming. Science, v. 325, p. 310-314. (see Earth Pages)

Lordkipanidze, D. et al. 2005.  The earliest toothless hominin skull.  Nature, v. 434, p. 717-718. (see Earth Pages Caring among the Erects)

Lordkipanidze, D.  et al., 2013. A complete skull from Dmanisi, Georgia, and the evolutionary biology of early Homo. Science, v. 342, p. 326-331. (see Earth Pages)

Lovelock. J., 2009. The Vanishing Face of Gaia: A Final Warning. Allen Lane, London

Lowe, J. and 41 others 2012. Volcanic ash layers illuminate the resilience of Neanderthals and early modern humans to natural hazards. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 109, p. 13532-13537. (see Earth-Pages Neanderthals and Aurignacians survived massive volcanic disaster)

Lozano, M. et al., 2009. Right handedness of Homo heidelbergensis from Sima de los Huesos (Atapuerca, Spain) 500,000 years ago. Evolution and Human Behaviour, v. 30, p. 369-376.

Lulergue, L. and 9 others 2008. Orbital and millennial-scale features of atmospheric CH4 over the past 800,000 years. Nature, v.  453, p. 383-386(see Earth Pages)

Lunt, D.J. et al. 2008. Late Pliocene Greenland glaciation controlled by a decline in atmospheric CO2 levels. Nature, v. 454, p. 1102-1105. (see Earth-Pages)

Luthi, D. and 10 others 2008. High resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000-800,000 years before present. Nature, v.  453, p. 379-382. (see Earth-Pages)

Macaulay, V. et al. 2005. Single, rapid coastal settlement of Asia by analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes.  Science, v. 308, p. 1034-1036. (see Earth-Pages)

Marean, C.W. 2010. When the sea saved humanity. Scientific American, v. 303 (August 2010 (see Earth-PagesSurvival by the seaside)

Martinez-Garcia, A. et al. 2011. Southern Ocean dust-climate coupling over the past 4 million years. Nature, v. 476, p. 312-315. (see Earth-Pages)

Mascarelli, A.L. 2009. Quaternary geologists win timescale vote. Nature, v. 459, p. 624. (see Earth-Pages)

Maslin, M. et al. 2004.  Linking continental-slope failures and climate change: Testing the clathrate gun hypothesis.  Geology, v. 32, p. 53-56. (see Earth-Pages)

McDougall, I et al. 2005.  Stratigraphic placement and age of modern humans from Kibish, Ethiopia.  Nature, v. 433, p. 733-736. (see Earth-Pages The oldest modern humans)

McEvoy, B. 2014. Handprint: Human Evolution. website http://handprint.com/LS/ANC/evol.html

McKie, R., 1992.  Genes rock the fossil record.  Geographical Magazine, (November), p. 20-25.

McPherron, S.P. et al., 2010. Evidence for stone-tool-assisted consumption of animal tissues before 3.39 million years ago at Dikika, Ethiopia. Nature, v. 466, p. 857-860. (see Earth-Pages)

Mellars, P. 2004.  Neanderthals and the modern human colonization of Europe.  Nature, v. 432, p. 461-465. (see Earth-Pages)

Mellars, P. 2006. Going East: new genetic and archaeological perspectives on the modern human colonization of Eurasia. Science, v. 313, p. 796-80. (see Earth-Pages Asian migrations reviewed)

Mercader, J. et al., 2002.  Excavation of a chimpanzee stone tool site in the African rainforest.  Science, v. 296, p. 1542-1455. (see Earth-Pages)

Mietto, P. et al., 2003.  Human footprints in Pleistocene volcanic ash.  Nature, v. 422, p. 133. (see Earth-Pages The first volcanologists?)

Molnar, P. & England, P., 1990.  Late Cenozoic uplift of mountain ranges and global climate change: chicken or egg?  Nature, v. 346, p. 29-34.

Morgan, L.E. & Renne, P.R. 2009. Diachronous dawn of Africa’s Middle Stone Age: New 40Ar/39Ar ages from the Ethiopian Rift. Geology, v. 36, p. 967-970. (see Earth-Pages)

Meyer, M. and 10 others 2013. A mitochondrial genome sequence of a hominin from Sima de los Huesos, Nature, v. 504. (see Earth-Pages)

Meyer, M. and 13 others, 2016. Nuclear DNA sequences from the Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos hominins. Nature, v. 531, p. 504-507.

Morwood, M.J. et al. 2004.  Archaeology and age of a new hominin from Flores in eastern Indonesia.  Nature, v. 431, p. 1087-1091. (see Earth-Pages)

Morwood, M.J. and 10 others 2005.  Further evidence for small-bodied hominins from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature, v. 437, p. 1012-1017. (see Earth-Pages)

Murton, J.B. et al., 2010. Identification of Younger Dryas outburst flood path from Lake Agassiz to the Arctic Ocean. Nature, v. 464, p. 740-743. (see Earth-Pages)

North Greenland Ice Core Project members, 2004.  High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period.  Nature, v. 431, p. 147-151.

Nowell, A. & Chang M.L. 2009. The case against sexual selection as an explanation of handaxe morphology. Paleoanthropology, v. 2009, p. 77-88. (see Earth-Pages)

Organ, C., Nunn, C.L., Machanda, Z. & Wrangham, R.W., 2011. Phylogenetic rate shifts in feeding time during the evolution of Homo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 108, p. 14555–14559.

Pääbo, S., 2014. Neanderthal Man: In Search of Lost Genomes. Basic Books, New York.

Padden, M. et al., 2001.  Evidence for Late Jurassic release of methane from gas hydrate.  Geology, v.  29, p. 223-226. (see Earth-Pages A Late-Jurassic methane “gun”)

Paillard, D., 1998.  The timing of Pleistocene glaciations from a simple multiple-stae climate model.  Nature, v. 391, p. 378-381.

Pappu, S. et al., 2011. Early Pleistocene presence of Acheulian hominins in South India. Science, v. 331, p. 1596-1599. (see Earth-Pages)

Parfitt, S.A. et al., 2005. The earliest record of human activity in northern Europe. Nature, v. 438, p. 1008-1012. (see Earth-Pages Earliest tourism in northern Europe)

Parfitt, S.A and 115 others, 2010. Early Pleistocene human occupation at the edge of the boreal zone in northwest Europe. Nature, v. 466, p. 229-233. (see Earth-Pages Earlier colonisers of northern Europe)

Parton, A. ­et al. 2015. Alluvial fan records from southeast Arabia reveal multiple windows for human dispersal. Geology, v. 43, p. 295-298. (see Earth-Pages)

Partridge, T.C. et al. 2003.  Lower Pliocene hominid remains from Sterkfontein.  Science, v. 300, p. 607-612. (see Earth-Pages)

Paterson, N. et al. 2006. Genetic evidence for complex speciation of humans and chimpanzees. Nature, v. 441, 1103-1108. (see Earth-Pages)

Pearson, P.N. et al. 2009. Atmospheric carbon dioxide through the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition. Nature, v. 461, p. 1110-1113. (see Earth-Pages)

Pennisi, E. 2009. Tales of a prehistoric human genome. Science, v. 323, p. 866-871. (see Earth-Pages The Neanderthal genome is coming!)

Pennisi, E. 2015. Lost worlds found. Science, v. 349, p. 367-369. (see Earth-Pages)

Peresani, M. et al. 2011. Late Neandertals and the intentional removal of feathers as evidenced from bird bone taphonomy at Fumane Cave 44 ky B.P., Italy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 108. (see Earth-Pages)

Peterson, L.C. et al., 2000.  Rapid changes in the hydrological cycle of the tropical Atlantic during the last glacial.  Science, v. 290, p. 1947-1951. (see Earth-Pages)

Petit, J.R. et al., 2000.  Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica.  Nature,  399, p. 429-436. (see Earth-Pages)

Pike, A.W.G. and 10 others, 2012. U-series dating of Paleolithic art in 11 caves in Spain. Science, v. 336, p. 1409-1413. (see Earth-Pages)

Pinker, S., 1995.  The Language Instinct.  Penguin, London.

Pinter, N. & Brandon, M.T., 1997.  How erosion builds mountains.  Scientific American, (April), p. 60-65.

Piotrowski, A.M. et al. 2005.  Temporal relationships of carbon cycling and ocean circulation at glacial boundaries.  Science, v. 307, p. 1933-1938. (see Earth-Pages Tracking ocean circulation during the last glacial period)

Poznik, G.D. and 10 others, 2013. Sequencing Y chromosomes resolves discrepancy in time to common ancestor of males versus females. Science, v. 341, p. 562-565. (see Earth-Pages)

Pross, J. et al. 2009. Massive perturbation in terrestrial ecosystems of the Eastern Mediterranean region associated with the 8.2 kyr B.P. climatic event. Geology, v. 37, p. 887-890. (see Earth-Pages Just when you think it’s going to turn out alright…)

Prufer, K. and 40 others, 2012. The bonobo genome compared with the chimpanzee and human genomes. Nature, v. 486, p. 527-531.

Qiu, J., 2016. Tibet’s primeval ice. Science, v. 351, p. 436-439. (see Earth-Pages)

Rahmstorf, S., 1997.  Ice-cold in Paris.  New Scientist, (February 8), p. 26-30.

Rahmstorf, S., 2002.  Ocean circulation and climate during the last 120,000 years.  Nature, v.  419, p. 207-214. (see Earth-Pages)

Raichlen, S.A. et al., 2011. Calcaneus length determines running economy: Implications for endurance running performance in modern humans and Neandertals. Journal of Human Evolution, v. 60, p. 299-308 (see Earth-Pages)

Rasmussen, M. and 57 others, 2011. An aboriginal Australian genome reveals separate human dispersals into Asia. Science, v. 334, p. 94-98. (see Earth-Pages)

Rasmussen, T.L., Thomsen, E., Labeyrie, L. & van Weering, T.C.E., 1996.  Circulation changes in the Faeroe-Shetland Channel correlating with cold events during the last glacial period (58-10 ka).  Geology, v. 24, p. 937-940.

Rasmussen, T.L., Thomsen, E. & Moros, M., 2016. North Atlantic warming during Dansgaard-Oeschger events synchronous with Antarctic warming and out-of-phase with Greenland climate. Scientific Reports, v. 6.

Roach, N.T. et al. 2013. Elastic energy storage in the shoulder and the evolution of high-speed throwing in Homo. Nature, v. 498, p. 483-486. (see Earth-Pages)

Roberts, A. (ed.), 2011. Evolution: the Human Story. Dorling Kindersley, London.

Roberts, N., 1998.  The Holocene: An Environmental History.  Blackwell, Oxford.

Robock, A. et al., 2009. Did the Toba volcanic eruption of ∼74 ka B.P. produce widespread glaciation? Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, v. 114. (see Earth-Pages),

Rohde, D.L.T et al. 2004.  Modelling the recent common ancestry of all living humans.  Nature, v. 431, p. 562-566. (see Earth-Pages The perils of genealogy)

Rook, L. et al., 1999. Oreopithecus was a bipedal ape after all: Evidence from the iliac cancellous architecture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 96, p. 8795–8799..

Rose, J.I. and 9 others 2011. The Nubian Complex of Dhofar, Oman: An African Middle Stone Age Industry in Southern Arabia. PLoS ONE 6. . (see Earth-Pages)

Rosenberg, T.M. and 8 others, 2011. Humid periods in southern Arabia: Windows of opportunity for modern human dispersal. Geology, v. 39, p. 1115-1118. (see Earth-Pages Added 21 December 2011.)

Rozzi, F.V.R & Bermudez de Castro, J.M., 2004.  Surprisingly rapid growth in Neanderthals.  Nature, v. 428, p. 936-939. (see Earth-Pages Faster development of Neanderthals)

Ruddiman, W.F. 2005.  How did humans first alter global climate. Scientific American, v. 292 March 2005, p. 34-41. (see Earth-Pages)

Ruddiman, W.F. 2010. A paleoclimatic enigma. Science, v. 328, p. 838-839. (see Earth-Pages Doubt cast on erosion and weathering theory of climate change)

Rule, S. et al., 2012. The aftermath of a megafaunal extinction: ecosystem transformation in Pleistocene Australia. Science, v. 335, p. 1483-1486. (see Earth-Pages)

Russo, G.A. & Shapiro, L.J., 2013. Reevaluation of the lumbosacral region of Oreopithecus bambolii. Journal of Human Evolution, v. 65, p. 253-265.

Sankararaman, S. et al., 2016. The combined landscape of Denisovan and Neanderthal ancestry in modern humans. Current Biology, v. 26, p. 1-7. (see Earth-Pages)

Scheiermeier, Q. 2003. Gas leak! Nature, v. 423, p. 681-682. (see Earth-Pages)

Scerri, E.M.L. et al. 2014. Unexpected technological heterogeneity in northern Arabia indicates complex Late Pleistocene demography at the gateway to Asia. Journal of Human Evolution, v. 75, p. 125-142. (see Earth-Pages)

Schwartzman, D. & Volk, T., 1991.  When soil cooled the world.  New Scientist, (July 13), p. 33-36.

Sepulchre, P. et al., 2006. Tectonic uplift and eastern Africa aridification. Science, v.  313, p. 1419-1423. (see Earth-Pages Drying East Africa)

Shen, G. et al., 2009. Age of Zhoukoudian Homo erectus determined with 26Al/10Be dating. Nature, v. 458, p. 198-200. (see Earth-Pages Homo erectus in a cold climate)

Siddall, M. and 6 others, 2003.  Sea-level fluctuations during the last glacial cycle.  Nature, v. 423, p. 853-858. (see Earth-Pages Red Sea record links to northern hemisphere climate)

Siegenthaler, U and 10 others 2005.  Stable carbon cycle-climate relationship during the Late Pleistocene. Science, v. 310, p. 1313-1317. (see Earth-Pages)

Sigman, D. M. & Boyle, E.A.,  2000.  Glacial/interglacial variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide.  Nature, v. 407, p. 859-869. (see Earth-Pages No escape from global warming?)

Sirocko, F., 2003.  What drove past teleconnections.  Science, v. 301, p. 1336-1337. (see Earth-Pages)

Slimak, L. 2011. Late Mousterian persistence near the Arctic Circle. Science, v. 332, p. 841-845. (see Earth-Pages Arctic Neanderthals)

Smith, F.A. et al. 2010. Methane emissions from extinct megafauna. Nature Geoscience, v. 3, p. 374-375. (see Earth-Pages Flatulence and the Younger Dryas)

Spahni, R. and 10 others 2005. Atmospheric methane and nitrous oxide of the Late Pleistocene from Antarctic ice cores. Science, v. 310, p. 1317-1321. (see Earth-Pages)

Spoor, F. et al. 2015. Reconstructed Homo habilis type OH 7 suggests deep-rooted species diversity in early Homo. Nature. v. 519, p.83-86. doi:10.1038/nature14224

Stedman, H.H. and 9 others, 2004.  Myosin gene mutation correlates with anatomical changes in the human lineage.  Nature, v. 428, p. 415-418. (see Earth-Pages)

Steffensen, J.P. and 19 others 2008. High-resolution Greenland ice core data show abrupt climate change happens in few years. Science, v. 321, p. 680-684. (see Earth-Pages Climate shock of the Younger Dryas)

Stringer, C.2011. The Origin of Our Species. Allen Lane and Penguin Books

Stringer, C.2016. The origin and evolution of Homo sapiens. Philosophicsal Transactions of the Royal Society B. v. 271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0237

Stringer, C. & Gamble, C., 1993.  In Search of the Neanderthals: Solving the Puzzle of Human Origins.  Thames & Hudson, London.

Stringer, C. & McKie, R., 1996.  African Exodus: The Origins of Modern Humanity.  Jonathan Cape, London.

Surovell, T.A. and 8 others 2009. An independent evaluation of the Younger Dryas extraterrestrial impact hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 106, p. 18155–18158. (see Earth-Pages Impact cause for Younger Dryas panned again)

Tarasov, L & Peltier, W.R. 2005.  Arctic freshwater forcing of the Younger Dryas cold reversal.  Nature, v. 435, p. 62-665. (see Earth-Pages)

TalkOrigins Archive 2016, Website, Fossil Hominids.

Tattersall, I., 1997.  Out of Africa again … and again.  Scientific American, (April), p. 46-53.

Taylor, K.C. & 12 others, 1997.  The Holocene-Younger Dryas transition recorded at Summit, Greenland.  Science, v.  278, p. 825-827.

Tierney, J.E. et al. 2008. Northern Hemisphere controls on tropical southeast African climate during the last 60,000 years. Science, v. 322, p. 252-255. (see Earth-Pages)

Timmermann, A. & Menviel, L. 2009. What drives climate flip-flops? Science, v. 325, p. 273-274. (see Earth Pages)

Tolstoy, M. 2015. Mid-ocean ridge eruptions as a climate valve. Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1002/2014GL063015 . (see Earth-Pages)

Trauth, M.H. et al. 2005. Late Cenozoic moisture history of East Africa. Science, v. 309, p. 2051-2053. (see Earth-Pages)

Tréguer, P and Pondaven, P., 2000.  Silica control of carbon dioxide.  Nature, v. 406, p. 358-359. (see Earth-Pages Silica as a control over atmospheric CO2 levels)

van Ommen, T. 2015. Palaeoclimate: Northern push for the bipolar see-saw. Nature, v. 520, p. 630-631.

Various authors, 2009. Special issue on Ardepithecus ramidus. Science, v. 326 (2 October 2009), p. 60-74E8. (see Earth Pages)

Various authors, 2011. Special issue on Australopithecus sediba. Science, v. 333 (9 September 2011), p. 1402-1420. (see Earth Pages)

Velicogna, I. 2009. Increasing rates of ice mass loss from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets revealed by GRACE. Geophysical Research Letters, v. 36, L19503 doi:10.1029/2009GL040222 (see Earth Pages)

Vrba, E.S., (editor), 1995.  Paleoclimate and evolution, with emphasis on human origins.  Yale University Press, New Haven.

WAIS Divide Project Members, 2015. Precise interpolar phasing of abrupt climate change during the last ice age. Nature, v. 520, p. 661-665.

Ward, C.V. et al., 2011. Complete fourth metatarsal and arches in the foot of Australopithecus afarensis. Science, v. 331, p. 750-753. (see Earth-Pages)

Wilkinson, B.H. 2005.  Humans as geological agents: A deep-time perspective.  Geology, v. 33, p. 161-164. (see Earth-Pages)

White, T.D. and 6 others, 2003.  Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia.  Nature, v. 423, p. 742-747. (see Earth-Pages)

Willenbring, J.K. & von Blanckenburg, F. 2010. Long-term stability of global erosion rates and weathering during late-Cenozoic cooling. Nature, v. 465, p. 211-214. (see Earth-Pages Doubt cast on erosion and weathering theory of climate change)

Willerslev, E. and 49 others, 2014. Fifty thousand years of Arctic vegetation and megafaunal diet. Nature, v. 506, p. 47-51. (see Earth-Pages)

Wolpoff, M.H. et al. 2001.  Modern human ancestry at the peripheries: a test of the replacement theory.  Science, v. 291, p. 293-297. (see Earth-Pages)

Wong, K., 2003.  Stranger in a new land.  Scientific American, v. 289(5), p. 54-63. (see Earth-Pages)

Wood, B., 1993.  Four legs good, two legs better.  Nature, v. 363, p. 587-588.

Wood, B., 1994.  The oldest hominid yet.  Nature, v. 371, p. 280-281.

Wood, B., 1997.  The oldest whodunnit in the wold.  Nature, v. 385, p. 292-293.

Wood, B. & Turner, A., 1995.  Out of Africa and into Asia.  Nature, v. 378, p. 239-240.

Wurtster, C.M. et al. 2008. Stable carbon and hydrogen isotopes from bat guano in the Grand Canyon, USA, reveal Younger Dryas and 8.2 ka events. Geology, v. 36, p. 683-688. (see Earth-Pages Younger Dryas and the Bat Cave)

Zhou, Z.-Y., 2014. New dating of the Homo erectus cranium from Lantian (Gongwangling), China. Journal of Human Evolution, v. 78, p. 144–157

Zilhao, J. and 16 others, 2010. Symbolic use of marine shells and mineral pigments by Iberian Neandertals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 107 p. 1023-1028. (see Earth-Pages)