Further Reading


This list is neither exhaustive nor representative of the wealth of primary and secondary sources that I used in writing this book.  Many of the ideas stem from small parts of hundreds of scientific papers in little frequented journals.  Some of these figure here, either because they are important or are easily understood by a general reader. There are also references that I found either odd or amusing while writing for Earth-Pages.  The most useful sources for unfolding developments are the regular news and views pages in the weekly journals Nature and Science, together with occasional review articles in the science magazines New Scientist  and  Scientific American. Online rolling sources of geoscientific news are at Sci-News and Geology.com. The books in the list provide an easily accessible means of expanding your understanding of basic issues in geology, the physical sciences, and evolutionary biology. Many of the publications include links to freely downloadable PDFs. In their absence DOIs are included, which could be used with Sci-Hub.

After 2000 my Earth-Pages blog featured brief commentaries on many of the following papers. The comments are now compiled as annual logs for several topics that are easily accessed by clicking the appended link to: Geohazards; Geomorphology; Human evolution and migrations; Magmatism; Miscellaneous Commentary; Palaeoclimatology; Palaeobiology; Physical Resources; Planetary Science; Remote Sensing; Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, and Tectonics. The page for each topic features a summary of all the research fields that I covered during each year since 2000, with links to PDFs of the annual logs.

Further reading for each Part

Part I  Part II  Part III  Part IV  Part V  Part VI  Part VII

Part I: How the World Works

Abe-Ouchi, A. et  al. 2013. Insolation-driven 100,000-year glacial cycles and hysteresis of ice-sheet volume. Nature, v. 500, p. 190-193; doi: 10.1038/nature12374. (see Earth-Pages)

Andrews Deller, M.E., 2006. Facies discrimination in laterites using Landsat Thematic Mapper, ASTER and ALI data — examples from Eritrea and Arabia. International Journal of Remote Sensing, v. 27, p. 2389–2409; DOI: 10.1080/01431160600586050.

Albarède, F., 2005. Helium feels the heat in Earth’s mantle. Science, v. 310, p. 1777-1778. (see Earth-Pages)

Angiboust, S. et al., 2012. Eclogite breccia in a subducted ophiolite: A record of intermediate depth earthquakes? Geology, v.  40, p. 707-710; DOI: 10.1130/G32925.1. (see Earth-Pages)

Arndt, N.,  2000.  Hot heads and cold tails. Nature, v. 407, p. 458-461; doi: 10.1038/35035176. (see Earth-Pages)

Atkins, P., 1996.  The Periodic Kingdom.  Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London.

Bak, P., 1997.  How Nature Works: The Science of Self-organized Criticality.  Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Battersby, S., 2003.  Eat your crusts.  New Scientist, 30 August 2003, p. 30-33. (see Earth-Pages)

Battersby, S. 2004.  Fire down below.  New Scientist, 7 August 2004 issue, p. 26-29. (see Earth-Pages Uranium in the core?)

Bowler, S. 2000.  Journey to the Centre of the Earth.  Inside Science #134,  New Scientist 14 October 2000

Brandl, P.A. et al., 2013. High mantle temperatures following rifting cause by continental insulation. Nature Geoscience, v. 6, p. 391-394; DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1758. (see Earth-Pages)

Burbank, D.W. and 7 others, 2003.  Decoupling of erosion and precipitation in the HimalayasNature, v. 426, p. 652-655; DOI: 10.1038/nature02187. (see Earth-Pages)

Burchfiel, B.C. 2004.  New technology; new geological challengesGSA Today, v. 14, p. 4-10. (see Earth-Pages)

Cairns-Smith, A.G., 1996.  Evolving the Mind: On the Nature of Matter and the Origin of Consciousness. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Chen, W-P. and Brudzinski, M.R., 2001.  Evidence for a large-scale remnant of subducted lithosphere beneath FijiScience, v. 292, p. 2475-2478; DOI: 10.1126/science.292.5526.2475. (see Earth-Pages)

Cohen, A.S. et al. 2004.  Osmium isotope evidence for the regulation of atmospheric CO2 by continental weatheringGeology, v. 32, p. 157-160; DOI: 10.1130/G20158.1. (see Earth-Pages)

Colling, A. (editor), 1997.  The Dynamic Earth.  The Open University, Milton Keyes UK.

Conrad, C.P. & Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. 2002.  How mantle slabs drive plate tectonics.  Science, v. 298, p. 207-209; DOI: 10.1126/science.1074161. (see Earth-Pages)

Dietrich, W.E. & Perron, J.T., 2006. The search for a topographic signature of life. Nature, v. 439, p. 411-418; DOI:10.1038/nature04452. (see Earth-Pages)

Dorn, R.I. 2014. Ants as a powerful biotic agent of olivine and plagioclase dissolution. Geology, v. 42, p. 771-774; DOI: 10.1130/G35825.1. (see Earth-Pages)

Doubrovine, P.V. et al., 2012. Absolute plate motions in a reference frame defined by moving hot spots in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans. Journal of Geophysics Research: Solid Earth, v. 117, B09101; DOI: 10.1029/2011JB009072,. (see Earth-Pages)

Duff, P. McL. D. (editor), 1993.  Holmes’ Principles of Physical Geology (4th Edition).  Chapman & Hall, London.

Firsoff, V.A., 1967.  Life, Mind and Galaxies.  Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh.

Fischer, K.M., 2002.  Waning buoyancy in the crustal roots of old mountains.  Nature, v. 417, p. 933-936; DOI:10.1038/nature00855. (see Earth-Pages Continental roots)

Forte, A.M. and Mitrovica, J.X., 2001.  Deep-mantle high-viscosity flow and thermochemical structure inferred from seismic and geodynamic dataNature, v. 410, p. 1049-1056; doi: 10.1038/35074000. (see Earth-Pages)

French, S. et al., 2013. Waveform tomography reveals channeled flow at the base of the oceanic lithosphere. Science, v. 342, 227-230;  DOI: 10.1126/science.1241514. (see Earth-Pages)

French, S.W. & Romanowicz, B., 2015. Broad plumes rooted at the base of the Earth’s mantle beneath major hotspots. Nature, v. 525, p. 95-99; DOI: 10.1038/nature14876. (see Earth-Pages)

Hamilton, W.B. 2003.  An alternative EarthGSA Today, v. 13(11), p. 4-12. (see Earth-Pages)

Hammond, J.O.S. and 10 others; 2013. Mantle upwelling and initiation of rift segmentation beneath the Afar Depression. Geology, v. 41, p. 635-638; DOI: 10.1130/G33925.1). (see Earth-Pages)

Hodges, K., 2006. Climate and the evolution of mountains. Scientific American, v. 295 (August 2006 issue), p. 54-61. (see Earth-Pages)

Holmes, A., 1944.  Principles of Physical Geology (1st Edition).  Thomas Nelson & Sons, London.

Hwang, C & Chang, E.T.Y., 2014. Seafloor secrets revealed. Science, v. 346. p. 32-33; DOI: 10.1126/science.1260459. (see Earth-Pages)

Karner, D.B. and Muller, R.A., 2000. A causality problem for Milankovitch. Science, 288, p.2143-2144; DOI: 10.1126/science.288.5474.2143. (see Earth-Pages)

Kerr, R.A, 2000.  Atmosphere drives earth’s tipsinessScience, v. 289, p. 710; DOI: 10.1126/science.289.5480.710.. (see Earth-Pages)

Kerr, R.A., 2005. Threshold crossed on the way to a geodynamo in a computer. Science, v. 309, p. 364-365; DOI: 10.1126/science.309.5733.364a. (see Earth-Pages)

Kerr, R.A., 2009. Scoping out unseen forces shaping North America. Science, v. 325, p. 1620-1621; DOI: 10.1126/science.325_1620a

Kutterolf, S. et al., 2013. A detection of Milankovich frequencies in global volcanic activity. Geology, v. 41, p. 227-230; doi:10.1130/G33419.1. (see Earth-Pages)

Lamb, S. & Sington, D., 1998. Earth Story. BBC, London

Lamb, S. & Davies P., 2003.  Cenozoic climate change as a possible cause for the rise of the AndesNature, v. 425, p. 792-797; DOI: 10.1038/nature02049. (see Earth-Pages)

Lay, T. et al., 2008. Core-mantle boundary heat flow. Nature Geoscience, v. 1, p. 25-32; DOI: 10.1038/ngeo.2007.44

Leman, L. et al., 2004.  Carbonyl sulphide – mediated prebiotic formation of peptidesScience, v. 306, p. 283-286; DOI: 10.1126/science.1102722. (see Earth-Pages)

Liu, L. et al. 2008. Reconstructing Farallon plate subduction beneath North America back to the Late Cretaceous. Science, v. 322, p. 934-938; DOI: 10.1126/science.1162921. (see Earth-Pages Plate tectonics in time and space)

Machetel , P. & Thomassot , E., 2002.  Cretaceous length of day perturbation by mantle avalanche.  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 202, p. 379-386; DOI: 10.1016/S0012-821X(02)00785-9. (see Earth-Pages)

Molnar, P., 2003.  Nature, nurture and landscapeNature, v. 426, p. 612-614; DOI: 10.1038/426612a. (see Earth-Pages)

Moore, W.B. & Webb, A.A.G., 2013. Heat-pipe Earth. Nature, v.  501, p. 501-505; DOI: 10.1038/nature12473. (see Earth-Pages)

Murthy, V.R. et al, 2003.  Experimental evidence that potassium is a substantial radioactive heat source in planetary cores.  Nature, v. 423, p. 163-165; DOI: 10.1038/nature01560. (see Earth-Pages)

Nisbet, E.G., 1991.  Leaving Eden.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Nishi, M., 2014. Stability of hydrous silicate at high pressures and water transport to the deep lower mantle. Nature Geoscience, v. 7, p. 224-227; DOI: 10.1038/ngeo2074. (see Earth-Pages)

Poli, P. et al., 2012. Body-wave imaging of Earth’s mantle discontinuities from ambient seismic noise. Science, v. 338, p. 1063-1065; DOI: 10.1126/science.1228194. (see Earth-Pages)

Prieto, G.A. 2012. Imaging the deep EarthScience (Perspectives), v. 338, p. 1037-1038; DOI: 10.1126/science.1231290

Reiners, P.W., 2003.  Coupled spatial variations in precipitation and long-term erosion rates across the Washington CascadesNature, v. 426, p. 645-647; DOI: 10.1038/nature02111. (see Earth-Pages)

Rose, S., 1997.  Lifelines: Biology, Freedom, Determinism.  Penguin, London.

Rubatto, D. et al. 2011. Yo-yo subduction recorded by accessory minerals in the Italian Western Alps. Nature Geoscience, v. 4, p. 338-342; DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1124. see Earth-Pages)

Rychert, C.A. & Shearer, P.M., 2009. A global view of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Science, v. 324, p. 495-498; DOI: 10.1126/science.1169754. (see Earth-Pages)

Sandwell, D.T. et al., 2014. New global marine gravity model from CryoSat-2 and Jason-1 reveals buried tectonic structure. Science, v. 346. p. 65-67; DOI: 10.1126/science.1258213. (see Earth-Pages)

Scherstén, A. et al., 2004.  Tungsten isotope evidence that mantle plumes contain no contributions from the Earth’s coreNature, v. 427, p. 234-237; DOI: 10.1038/nature02221. (see Earth-Pages)

Shapiro, N.M. et al. 2004.  Thinning and flow of Tibetan crust constrained by seismic anisotropyScience, v. 305, p. 233-236; DOI: 10.1126/science.1098276. (see Earth-Pages)

Sigloch, K. et al., 2008. Two stage subduction history under North America inferred from multiple-frequency tomography. Nature Geoscience, v. 1, p. 458-462; DOI: 10.1038/ngeo231. (see Earth-Pages)

Skinner, B.J. & Porter, S.C., 1995.  The Blue Planet: An Introduction to Earth System Science.  John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Steiner, J. 1967. The sequence of geological events and the dynamics of the Milky Way Galaxy. Journal of the  Geological Society of  Australia, v.  14, p. 99–132; DOI: 10.1080/00167616708728648. (see Earth-Pages)

Strahler, A.N., 1972.  Planet Earth: Its Physical Systems Through Geologic Time.  Harper & Row, New York.

Strom, R.G. et al. 2005. The origin of planetary impactors in the Inner Solar System. Science, v. 309, p. 1847-1850; DOI: 10.1126/science.1113544

Tackley, P.J., 2000.  Mantle convection and plate tectonics: toward an integrated physical and chemical theoryScience,  288, p. 2002-2007; DOI: 10.1126/science.288.5473.2002. (see Earth-Pages Geodynamics)

Takahashi, F. et al. 2005. Simulations of a quasi-Taylor state geomagnetic field including polarity reversals on the Earth Simulator. Science, v. 309, p. 459-461; DOI: 10.1126/science.1111831

Teagle, D.A.H. & Ildefonse B., 2011. Journey to the mantle of the Earth. Nature, v. 471, p. 437-439; DOI: 10.1038/471437a. (see Earth-Pages)

Trampert, J. et al., 2004.  Probabilistic tomographic maps chemical heterogeneities throughout the lower mantleScience, v. 306, p. 853-856; DOI: 10.1126/science.1101996. (see Earth-Pages)

Walter, M.J. and 8 others, 2011. Deep mantle cycling of oceanic crust: evidence from diamonds and their mineral inclusions. Science, v. 334, p. 54-57; DOI: 10.1126/science.1209300. (see Earth-Pages)

White, W.M., 2002.  Through the wringer.  Nature, v. 420, p. 366-367; doi: 10.1038/420366a. (see Earth-Pages)

Williams, Q., 2014. Deep mantle matters. Science, v. 344, p. 800-801; DOI: 10.1126/science.1254399. (see Earth-Pages)

Williams, R.J.P. & Fraústo da Silva, J.J.R., 1996.  The Natural Selection of the Chemical Elements: The Environment and Life’s Chemistry.  Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Wobus, C.W. et al., 2003.  Has focused denudation sustained active thrusting at the Himalayan topographic front?  Geology, v. 31, p. 861-864; DOI: 10.1130/G19730.1. (see Earth-Pages)

Wortel, M.J.R. and Spakman, W. 2000.  Subduction and slab detachment in the Mediterranean-Carpathian regionScience, v. 290, p. 1910-1917; DOI: 10.1126/science.290.5498.1910. (see Earth-Pages)

Ye, K. et al. 2000.  The possible subduction of continental material to depths greater than 200 km.  Nature, 407, 734-736; doi: 10.1038/35037566. (see Earth-Pages)

Yokoyama, T. & Matsukura, Y., 2006. Field and laboratory experiments on weather rate of granodiorite: Separation of chemical and physical processes. Geology, v. 34, p. 809-812; DOI: 10.1130/G22625.1. (see Earth-Pages)

Zandt, G. et al. 2004.  Active foundering of a continental arc root beneath the southern Sierra Nevada in CaliforniaNature, v. 431, p. 41-46; DOI: 10.1038/nature02847. (see Earth-Pages)


Part II: Peering Into Time

Arnold, G.L. et al., 2004.  Molybdenum isotope evidence for widespread anoxia in mid-Proterozoic oceansScience v. 304, p. 87-90; DOI: 10.1126/science.1091785. (see Earth-Pages)

Balter, M., 2006. . Radiocarbon dating’s final frontier. Science, v. 313, p. 1560-1563; DOI: 10.1126/science.313.5793.1560. (see Earth-Pages)

Beard, B.L. et al., 2003.  Iron isotope constrains on Fe cycling and mass balance in oxygenated Earth oceans. Geology, v. 31, p. 629-632; DOI: 10.1130/0091-7613(2003)031<0629:IICOFC>2.0.CO;2. (see Earth-Pages)

Bédard, J.H. 2018. Stagnant lids and mantle overturns: implications for Archaean tectonics, magmagenesis, crustal growth, mantle evolution, and the start of plate tectonics. Geoscience Frontiers, v. 9, 19-49; DOI: 10.1016/j.gsf.2017.01.005. (see Earth Pages)

Biever, C. 2011. Push to define year sparks time war. New Scientist, v. 210 (30 April 2011), p. 10. (see Earth-Pages)

Bjerrum, C.J. and Canfield, D.E., 2002.  Ocean productivity before about 1.9 Gyr ago limited by phosphorus adsorption onto iron oxides.  Nature, v. 417, p. 159-162; doi: 10.1038/35019044. (see Earth-Pages)

Brown, G.C., Wilson, R.C.L. & Hawkesworth, C.J., (editors) 1994.  Understanding the Earth (3rd Edition).  Open University Press, Milton Keynes.

Bryan, S. E. & Ferrari, L., 2013. Large igneous provinces and silicic large igneous provinces: Progress in our understanding over the last 25 years. Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 125, p. 1053-1078; DOI:10.1130/B30820.1.

Chen, J. et al. 2015. The 13 million year Cenozoic pulse of the Earth. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 431, p. 256-263; DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2015.09.033. (see Earth-Pages)

Chowdhury, P. et al. 2017. Emergence of silicic continents as the lower crust peels off on a hot plate-tectonic Earth. Nature Geoscience, v. 10, p. 698-703; DOI: 10.1038/ngeo3010. (see Earth Pages)

Clement, B.M. 2004.  .  Dependence of the duration of geomagnetic polarity reversals on site latitudeNature, v. 428, p. 637-640; DOI: 10.1038/nature02459. (see Earth-Pages)

Cloud, P.,  1988.  Oasis in Space:  Earth History from the Beginning.  W.W. Norton, New York.

Condie, K.C. & Pease, V. (editors) 2008. When did Plate Tectonics Begin on Planet Earth. Special Paper 440, Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado.

Condie, K.C. 2018. A planet in transition: the onset of plate tectonics on Earth between 3 and 2 Ga? Geoscience Frontiers, v. 9, p. 51-60; DOI: 10.1016/j.gsf.2016.09.001. (see Earth Pages)

Conrad, C.P., 2013. The solid Earth’s influence on sea level. Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 125, p. 1027-1052; DOI: 10.1130/B30764.1. (see Earth-Pages)

Crowe, S.A. et al. 2013. Atmospheric oxygenation three billion years ago. Nature, v. 501, p. 535-538; DOI: 10.1038/nature12426. (see Earth-Pages)

Courtillot, V. et al. 2003. Three distinct types of hotspots in the Earth’s mantle. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 205, p. 295-308; DOI: 10.1016/S0012-821X(02)01048-8. (see Earth-Pages)

Cyranoski, D., 2006. Magical mantle tour. Nature, v. 440, p. 1108-1110; DOI: 10.1038/4401108a. (see Earth-Pages)

Dauphas, N. et al. 2004.  Clues from Fe isotope variations on the origin of Early Archean BIFs from GreenlandScience, v. 306, p. 2077-2080; DOI: 10.1126/science.1104639. (see Earth-Pages)

DePaulo, D.J. & Manga, M., 2003.  Deep origin of hotspots – the mantle plume modelScience, v. 300, p. 920-921; DOI: 10.1126/science.1083623. (see Earth-Pages)

Dhuime, B. et al. 2012. A change in the geodynamics of continental growth 3 billion years ago. Science, v. 335, p. 1334-1336; DOI: 10.1126/science.1216066. (see Earth-Pages)

Dickin, A.P., 2009. Radiogenic Isotope Geology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Drury, S.A., 2013. The Time Lords of geology. (see Earth-Pages)

Duff, P. McL. D. (editor), 1993.  Holmes’ Principles of Physical Geology (4th Edition).  Chapman & Hall, London.

Evans, D.A.D., 2006. Proterozoic low orbital obliquity and axial-dipolar geomagnetic field from evaporite palaeolatitudes. Nature, v. 444, p. 51-55; DOI: 10.1038/nature05203. (see Earth-Pages)

Foley, S.F et al., 2003.  Evolution of the Archaean crust by delamination and shallow subductionNature, v. 421, p. 249-252; DOI: 10.1038/421230b. (see Earth-Pages)

Fouger, G.R. & Natland, J.H., 2003.  .  Is “hotspot” volcanism a consequence of plate tectonics?  Science, v. 300, p. 921-922; DOI: 10.1126/science.1083623. (see Earth-Pages)

Franco, D.R. et al. 2012. Millennial-scale climate cycles in Permian-Carboniferous rhythmites: Permanent feature throughout geological time. Geology, v. 40, p. 19-22; doi: 10.1130/G32338.1. (see Earth-Pages)

Frisch, W., Meschede, M. & Blakey, R.C., 2011. Plate Tectonics: Continental Drift and Mountain Building. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Garcia-Castellanos, D. et al. 2009. Catastrophic flood of the Mediterranean after the Messinian salinity crisis. Nature, v. 462, p. 778-781; DOI: 10.1038/nature08555. (see Earth-Pages)

Glatzmaier, G.A. & Olson, P., 2005.  Probing the geodynamoScientific American April 2005, p. 33-39; DOI: 10.1038/scientificamerican0405-50. (see Earth-Pages)

Goldblatt, C. et al., 2006. Bistability of atmospheric oxygen and the Great Oxidation. Nature, v. 443, p. 683-686; DOI: 10.1038/nature05169. (see Earth-Pages)

Hawkesworth, C.J. et al. 2016. Tectonics and crustal evolution. GSA Today, v. 26(9), p. 4-11; doi: 10.1130/GSATG272A.1

Hayes, J.M., 2011. Earth’s redox history. Science. V. 334, p. 1654-1655; DOI: 10.1126/science.1216481. (see Earth-Pages)

Iizuka, T. et al., 2006. 4.2 Ga zircon xenocryst in an Acasta gneiss from northwestern Canada: evidence for early continental crust. Geology, v. 34, p. 245-248; DOI: 10.1130/G22124.1. (see Earth-Pages)

International Commission on Stratigraphy, 2016. Website, International Chronostratigraphic Chart.

Isley, A.E., 1995.  Hydrothermal plumes and the delivery of iron to banded iron formations.  Journal of Geology, v. 103, p. 169-185; DOI: 10.1086/629734.

Jackson, M.G. & Carlson, R.W., 2011. An ancient recipe for flood basalt genesis. Nature, v. 476, p. 316-319; DOI: 10.1038/nature10326. (see Earth-Pages)

Johnson, T.E. et al. 2017. Earth’s first stable continents did not form by subduction. Nature, v. 543, p. 239-242; DOI: 10.1038/nature21383. (see Earth Pages)

Kappler, A. et al. 2005. Deposition of banded iron formations by anoxygenic phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria. Geology, v.  33, p. 865-868; DOI: 10.1130/G21658.1. (see Earth-Pages)

Kasting, J.F., 1993.  Evolution of the Earth’s atmosphere and hydrosphere.  In: Engel, M.H. & Macko, S.A. (editors), Organic Geochemistry.  Plenum Press, New York.

Kauffman, A.J. & Xiao, S. 2003.  High CO2 levels in the Proterozoic atmosphere estimated from analyses of individual microfossilsNature, v.  425, p. 279-282; DOI: 10.1038/nature01902. (see Earth-Pages – Precambrian CO2 levels)

Kearey, P. & Vine, F.J., 1996.  Global Tectonics ( 2nd Edition).  Blackwell, Oxford.

Kennedy, M. et al. 2006. Late Precambrian oxygenation; inception of the clay mineral factory. Science, v. 311, p. 1446-1449; DOI: 10.1126/science.1118929. (see Earth-Pages)

Kerr, R.A. 2005.  The story of O2Science, v. 308, p. 1730-1732; DOI: 10.1126/science.308.5729.1730. (see Earth-Pages)

Konhauser, K.O. and 6 others, 2002.  Could bacteria have formed the Precambrian banded iron formations?  Geology, v. 30, p. 1079-1082; DOI: 10.1130/0091-7613(2002)030<1079:CBHFTP>2.0.CO;2. (see Earth-Pages)

Konhauser, K.O. and 12 others 2017. Iron formations: a global record of Neoarchaean to Palaeoproterozoic environmental history. Earth Science Reviews, v. 172, p. 140-177; doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2017.06.012. (see Earth-Pages)

Kuiper, K.F. et al. 2008. Synchronizing rock clocks of Earth history. Science, v. 320, p. 500-504; DOI: 10.1126/science.1154339. (see Earth-Pages)

Kump, L.R. et al., 2011. Isotopic evidence for massive oxidation of organic matter following the Great Oxidation Event. Science. v. 334, p. 1694-1696; DOI: 10.1126/science.1213999. (see Earth-Pages)

Larson, R.L., 1991.  Latest pulse of Earth: Evidence for a mid-Cretaceous superplumeGeology, v. 19, p. 547-550; DOI: 10.1130/0091-7613(1991)019<0547:LPOEEF>2.3.CO;2.

Li, Z.X., Evans, D.A.D. &Murphy. J.B. (Eds), 2016. Supercontinent Cycles Through Earth History. Special Publication SP424; Geological Society, London

Lister, G. et al, 2008. Boudinage of a stretching slablet implicated in earthquakes beneath the Hindu Kush. Nature Geoscience, v. 1, p. 196-201; DOI: 10.1038/ngeo132. (see Earth-Pages)

Lyons, T.W. et al. 2014. The rise of oxygen in Earth’s early ocean and atmosphere. Nature, v. 506, p. 307-315; DOI: 10.1038/nature13068.

Machetel , P. & Thomassot , E. 2002.  Cretaceous length of day perturbation by mantle avalanche.  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 202, p. 379-386; DOI: 10.1016/S0012-821X(02)00785-9. (see Earth-Pages)

Maclennan, J. & Lovell, B., 2002.  Control of regional sea level by surface uplift and subsidence caused by magmatic underplating of the Earth’s crust.  Geology, v. 30, p. 675-678; doi: 10.1130/0091-7613(2002)030<0675:CORSLB>2.0.CO;2. (see Earth-Pages)

Martin, H., 1986. Effect of steeper Archean geothermal gradient on geochemistry of subduction-zone magmas. Geology, v. 14, p. 753-756; DOI: 10.1130/0091-7613(1986)14<753:EOSAGG>2.0.CO;2.

Marx, K., 1993. Grundrisse: Foundations of the Critique of Political Economy. Penguin Classics, London.

Mazumder, R. 2004.  Implications of lunar orbital periodicity from the Chaibasa tidal rhythmite (India) of late Paleoproterozoic ageGeology, v. 32, p. 841-844; DOI: 10.1130/G20424.1. (see Earth-Pages A record of the Palaeoproterozoic lunar cycle)

Mojzsis, S.J et al. 2001.  Oxygen-isotope evidence from ancient zircons for liquid water at the Earth’s surface 4,300 Myr agoNature, v. 409, p. 178-181; doi: 10.1038/35051557. (see Earth-Pages)

Moser, D.E. et al.  2001.  Birth of the Kaapvaal tectosphere 3.08 billion years ago.  Science, v. 291, p. 465-468; DOI: 10.1126/science.291.5503.465. (see Earth-Pages)

Ogg, J.G., Ogg, G. & Gradstein, F.M., 2008. The Concise Geologic Time Scale. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

O’Neil, J. et al., 2008. Neodymium-142 evidence for Hadean mafic crust. Science, v. 321, p. 1828-1831; DOI: 10.1126/science.1161925. (see Earth-Pages)

O’Neil, J. & Carlson, R.W. 2017. Building Archean cratons from Hadean mafic crust. Science, v. 355, p. 1199-1202; DOI: 10.1126/science.aah3823. (see Earth-Pages)

O’Neil, C. et al. 2017. Impact-driven subduction on the Hadean Earth. Nature Geoscience, v. 10, p. 793-797; DOI: 10.1038/ngeo3029. (see Earth Pages)

Penvenne, L.J., 1995.  Turning up the heat.  New Scientist, (December 16), p. 26-30.

Peslier, A.H. et al. 2010. Olivine water contents in the continental lithosphere and the longevity of cratons. Nature, v. 467, p. 78-81; DOI: 10.1038/nature09317. (see Earth-Pages)

Posth, N.R. et al., 2008. Alternating Si and Fe deposition caused by temperature fluctuations in Precambrian oceans.  Nature Geoscience, v. 1, p. 703-708; DOI: 10.1038/ngeo306. (see Earth-Pages Banding in BIFs)

Rasmussen, B. 2005. Evidence for pervasive petroleum generation and migration in 3.2 and 2.63 Ga shales. Geology, v. 33, p. 497-500; DOI: 10.1130/G21316.1. (see Earth-Pages)

Roberts, N. M. W., Van Kranendonk, M., Parman, S., Shirey, S. & Clift, P. D. (editors) 2015. Continent Formation Through Time. Geological Society, London, Special Publication 389.

Rogers, J.J.W., 1993.  A History of the Earth.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

Rollinson, H.R., 2007. Early Earth Systems: a Geochemical Approach. Blackwell. Oxford.

Scherer, E., Münker, C. and Mezger, K. 2001.  Calibration of the lutetium-hafnium clock.  Science, v. 293, p. 683-687 DOI: 10.1126/science.1061372

Skinner, B.J. & Porter, S.C., 1987.  Physical Geology.  John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Silver, P.G & Behn. M.D. 2008. Intermittent plate tectonics. Science, v. 319, p. 85-88; DOI: 10.1126/science.1148397. (see Earth-Pages Is plate tectonics a turn-on or a turn-off?)

Simpson, S. 2009. Violent origins of continents. Scientific American, v. 302(1), p. 46-53; doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0110-60. (see Earth-Pages Hot tectonics in the Archaean)

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Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Web Resource. The Dynamic Earth.

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Web Resource. Geological Time.

Stern, R.J. & Gerya, T. 2018. Subduction initiation in nature and models: A review. Tectonophysics, v. 746, p. 173-196; DOI: 10.1016/j.tecto.2017.10.014. (see Earth Pages)

Steuber, T. & Veizer, J., 2002.  Phanerozoic record of plate tectonic control of seawater chemistry and carbonate sedimentationGeology, v. 30, p. 1123-1126; DOI: 10.1130/0091-7613(2002)030<1123:PROPTC>2.0.CO;2. (see Earth-Pages Phanerozoic marine strontium)

Tang, M., Chen, K & Rudnick, R.L., 2016. Archean upper crust transition from mafic to felsic marks the onset of plate tectonics. Science, v. 351, p. 372-375; DOI: 10.1126/science.aad5513. (see Earth-Pages)

Tarduno, J.A. et al. 2003.  The Emperor seamounts: southward motion of the Hawaiian hotspot plume in Earth’s mantleScience, v. 301, p. 1064-1069; DOI: 10.1126/science.1086442. (see Earth-Pages Wandering hot spots)

Tarduno, J. et al. 2009. The bent Hawaiian-Emperor hotspot track: inheriting the mantle wind. Science, v. 324, p. 50-53; DOI: 10.1126/science.1161256. (see Earth-Pages)

Taylor, S.R. & McLennan, S.M., 2005.  The evolution of continental crustScientific American, (January) p. 60-65.

Torsvik, T.H. 2003.  The Rodinia jigsaw puzzleScience, v. 300, p. 1379-1381; DOI: 10.1126/science.1083469. (see Earth-Pages)

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Whitfield, J. 2004.  Time lords.  Nature, v. 429, p. 124-125;DOI: 10.1038/429124a. (see Earth-Pages)

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Zhang, N & Zhong, S., 2011.  Heat fluxes at the Earth’s surface and core–mantle boundary since Pangea formation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 306, p. 205-216; DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2011.04.001(see Earth-Pages)



Part III: Star Stuff

Adams et al. 2009. Salt tectonics and collapse of Hebes Chasma, Valles Marineris, Mars. Geology, v.  37, p. 691-694; DOI: 10.1130/G30024A.1

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Bada, J.L., 2013. New insights into prebiotic chemistry from Stanley Miller’s spark discharge experiments. Chemical Society Reviews, v. 42, p.  2186–2196.

Baker, D.R. & Sofonio, K. 2017. A metasomatic mechanism for the formation of Earth’s earliest evolved crust. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 463, p. 48-55; DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2017.01.022. (see Earth Pages)

Barrow, J.D., 1994.  The Origin of the Universe.  Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London.

Battersby, S., 2011. Earth odyssey. New Scientist, v. 212 (3 December issue), p. 42-45 (see Earth-Pages)

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Berry, A.J. et al. 2008. Oxidation state of iron in komatiitic melt inclusions indicates hot Archaean mantle. Nature, v. 455, p. 960-963; DOI: 10.1038/nature07377. (see Earth-Pages)

Boyet, M & Carlson, R.W. 2005. 142Nd Evidence for Early (>4.53 Ga) Global Differentiation of the Silicate EarthScience Express, DOI: 10.1126/science.1113634. (see Earth-Pages)

Carlson, R.W. 2017. Earth’s building blocks. Nature, v. 541, p. 468-470; doi:10.1038/541468a. (see Earth-Pages)

Chandler, D.L. 2003.  Crater find backs falling star legend.  New Scientist, 21 June 2003, p. 13. (see Earth-Pages)

Chapman, C.R. & Morrison, D, 1994.  Impacts on the Earth by asteroids and comets: assessing the hazardNature, v. 367, p. 33-40; DOI: 10.1038/367033a0.

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Dahl, T.W., 2016. Identifying remnants of early Earth. Science, v. 352, p. 768-769; DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf2482 . (see Earth-Pages)

Dauphas, N. 2017. The isotopic nature of the Earth’s accreting material through time. Nature, v. 541, p. 521-524; DOI: 10.1038/nature20830. (see Earth-Pages)

Elliott, T., 2012. Galvanized lunacy. Nature, v. 490, p. 346-7; DOI: 10.1038/490346a. (see Earth-Pages)

Fischer-Gödde, M. & Kleine, T. 2017. Ruthenium isotopic evidence for an inner Solar System origin of the late veneer. Nature, v. 541, p. 525-527; DOI: 10.1038/nature21045. (see Earth-Pages)

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Garde, A.A. et al., 2012. Searching for giant, ancient impact structures on Earth: The Mesoarchaean Maniitsoq structure, West Greenland. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v.  337, p. 197-210; DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2012.04.026. (see Earth-Pages)

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Glikson A.Y. 2004. Early Precambrian asteroid impact-triggered tsunami: excavated seabed, debris flows, exotic boulders, and turbulence features associated with 3.472 Ga-old asteroid impact fallout units, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. Astrobiology v. 4, p. 5–19.

Glikson, A.Y. 2005. Asteroid/comet impact clusters, flood basalts and mass extinctions: Significance of isotopic age overlaps. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 236, p. 933– 937; DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2005.05.007

Glikson A.Y. & Hickman, A.H. 2014. Coupled asteroid impacts and banded iron-formations, Fortescue and Hamersley Groups, Pilbara, Western Australia. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08120099.2014.908952

Goldman, N. et al. 2010. Synthesis of glycine-containing complexes in impacts of comets on early Earth. Nature Chemistry, v. 2, p. 949–954; DOI: 10.1038/nchem.827. (see Earth-Pages)

Halliday, A.N. 2004.  Mixing, volatile loss and compositional change during impact-driven accretion of the EarthNature, v. 427, p. 505-509. (see Earth-Pages)

Hartmann, W.K. 2015. Chelyabinsk, Zond IV, and a possible first-century fireball of historical importance. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, v. 50, p. 368-381; DOI: 10.1111/maps.12428. (see Earth-Pages)

Harwartz, D. et al. 2014. Identification of the giant impactor Theia in lunar rocks. Science, v. 344, p. 1146-1150; DOI: 10.1126/science.1251117. (see Earth-Pages)

Head, J.W. III, 1994.  Venus after the flood.  Nature, v. 372, p. 729-730; DOI: 10.1038/372729a0.

Henbest, N., 1991.  Birth of the planets.  New Scientist, (24 August), p. 30-35.

Holzheid, A. et al., 2000.  Evidence for a late chondritic veneer in the Earth’s mantle from high-pressure partitioning of palladium and platinumNature, v. 406, p. 396-399; doi: 10.1038/35019050. (see Earth-Pages)

Israelian, G.  et al. 2001.  Evidence for planet engulfment by the star HD82943.  Nature, v. 411, p. 163-166; doi: 10.1038/35075512. (see Earth-Pages Life on Earth even luckier than we thought?)

Javaux, E.J. et al. 2010. Organic-walled microfossils in 3.2-billion-year-old shallow marine siliciclastic deposits. Nature, v. 463, p. 934-938; DOI: 10.1038/nature08793. (see Earth-Pages Believable Archaean fossils)

Kasting, J.F. & Ono, S., 2006. Paleoclimates: the first two billion years. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences), v. 361, p. 917-929.

Keppler, H. et al. 2008. Optical absorption and radiative thermal conductivity of silicate perovskite to 125 gigapascals. Science, v. 322, p. 1529-1532; DOI: 10.1126/science.1164609

Kruijer, T.S. et al. 2015. Lunar tungsten isotopic evidence for the late veneer. Nature, v. 520, p. 534-537; DOI: 10.1038/nature14360. (see Earth-Pages)

Lagos, M. et al. 2008. The Earth’s missing lead may not be in the core. Nature, v. 456, p. 89-92; DOI: 10.1038/nature07375. (see Earth-Pages)

Lane, N., 2009. The cradle of life. New Scientist v. 204 (17 October 2009), p. 38-42. (see Earth-Pages)

Leverington, D.W. 2011. A volcanic origin for the outflow channels of Mars: Key evidence and major implications. Geomorphology, v. 132, p. 51-75; DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2011.05.022

Lewis, K.W. et al. 2008. Quasi-periodic bedding in the sedimentary rock record of Mars. Science, v. 322, p. 1532-1535; DOI:10.1126/science.1161870

Lowe, D.R. et al., 2014. Recently discovered 3.42-3.23 Ga impact layers, Barberton Belt, South Africa: 3.8 Ga detrital zircons, Archaean impact history and tectonic implications. Geology, v. 42, p. 747-750; DOI: 10.1130/G35743.1. (see Earth-Pages)

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Maier, W. D. et al. 2009. Progressive mixing of meteoritic veneer into the early Earth’s deep mantle. Nature, v. 460, p. 620-623; DOI: 10.1038/nature08205. (see Earth-Pages)

Marcus, R. et al., 2016. Website, Earth Impacts Effects Program.

Mazrouei, S. et al. 2019. Earth and Moon impact flux increased at the end of the Paleozoic. Science, v. 363, p. 253-257; DOI: 10.1126/science.aar4058. (see Earth Pages)

Meibom, A. et al. 2002.  Re-Os isotopic evidence for long-lived heterogeneity and equilibration processes in the Earth’s upper mantleNature, v. 419, p. 705-708; DOI: 10.1038/nature01067. (see Earth-Pages Detrital platinum-group grains)

Melosh, H.J., 1989.  Impact Cratering: A Geological Process.  Oxford University Press, New York.

Nemchin, A. et al. 2009. Timing of crystallization of the lunar magma ocean constrained by the oldest zircon. Nature Geosciences, v. 2, p. 133-136; DOI: 10.1038/NGEO417. (see Earth-Pages Moon-forming impact dated)

Nisbet, E.G., 1987.  The Young Earth.  Allen & Unwin, Boston.

Pahlevan, K. & Stevenson, D.J. 2007. Equilibration in the aftermath of the lunar-forming giant impact. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. v. 262, p. 438–449; doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2007.07.055. (see Earth-Pages)

Paniello, R.C. et al. 2012. Zinc isotope evidence for the origin of the Moon. Nature, v. 490, p. 376-379; DOI: 10.1038/nature11507

Pieters, C.M. and 28 others 2009. Character and spatial distribution of OH/H2O on the surface of the Moon seen by M3 on Chandrayaan-1. Science, v. 326, p. 568-572; DOI: 10.1126/science.1178658

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Sleep, N.H.,  2001.  Oxygenating the atmosphereNature, v. 410, p. 317-319. (see Earth-Pages)

Sleep, N.H., 2010. The Hadean-Archaean environment. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology.

Sleep, N.H. & Lowe, D.R. 2014. Physics of crustal fracturing and chert dike formation triggered by asteroid impact, ~3.26 Ga, Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, v. 15, p. 1054-1070; DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005229, (see Earth-Pages)

Steiner, J. 1967. The sequence of geological events and the dynamics of the Milky Way Galaxy. Journal of the  Geological Society of  Australia, v.  14, p. 99–132; DOI:  0.1080/00167616708728648

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Tarduno, J.A. et al. 2015. A Hadean to Paleoarchean geodynamo recorded by single zircon crystals. Science, v. 349, p. 521-524; DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa9114

Taylor, S.R. 1987.  The origin of the Moon.  American Scientist, , v. 75, p. 468-477.

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Taylor, S.R. 1992.  Solar System Evolution: A New Perspective.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Touboul, M. et al. 2015. Tungsten isotopic evidence for disproportional late accretion to the Earth and Moon. Nature, v. 520, p. 530-533; DOI: 10.1038/nature14355. (see Earth-Pages)

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Wieczorek, M.A. et al. 2012. An impactor origin for lunar magnetic anomalies. Science, v. 335, p. 1212-1215; DOI: 10.1126/science.1214773.

Wood, B.J. et al. 2006. Accretion of the Earth and segregation of its core. Nature, v. 441, p. 825-833; DOI: 10.1038/nature04763. (see Earth-Pages)


Part IV: ‘A Warm Little Pond’?

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Abramov, O. & Mojzis, S.J. 2009. Microbial habitability of the Hadean Earth during the late heavy bombardment. Nature, v. 459, p. 419-422; DOI: 10.1038/nature08015. (see Earth-Pages Hadean not so hellish for life)

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Archibald, J.M. 2015. Endosymbiosis and eukaryotic cell evolution. Current Biology, v. 25, p. R911-R921.

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Baross, J.A. 2018. The rocky road to biomolecules. Nature, v. 564, p. 42-43; DOI: 10.1038/d41586-018-07262-8 (see Earth-Pages)

Bengtson, S. (editor), 1994.  Early Life on Earth.  Columbia University Press, New York.

Bernhardt, H.S., 2012. The RNA world hypothesis: the worst theory of the early evolution of life (except for all the others). Biology Direct.

Bond, D.R. et al. 2002.  Electrode-reducing microorganisms that harvest energy from marine sedimentsScience, v. 295, p. 483-485; DOI: 10.1126/science.1066771

Boussau, B. et al., 2008. Parallel adaptations to high temperatures in the Archaean eon. Nature, v. 456, p. 942-945; DOI: 10.1038/nature07393. (see Earth-Pages Molecular evidence for the environment of the universal ancestor)

Brazier, M.D. et al., 2002.  Questioning the evidence for Earth’s oldest fossils.  Nature, v. 416, p. 76-81. (see Earth-Pages Doubt cast on earliest bacterial fossils)

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Cohen, P., 1996.  Let there be life.  New Scientist, (6 July), p.22-27.

Cooper, G. et al., 2001.  Carbonaceous meteorites as a source for sugar-related compounds for the early EarthNature, v. 414, p. 879-883; DOI: 10.1038/414879a. (see Earth-Pages)

Cooper, G.M. & Hausman, R.E., 2013. The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 6th Edition. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland MA, USA.

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Crowe, S.A. et al., 2013. Atmospheric oxygenation three billion years ago. Nature, v. 501, p. 535-538. (see Earth-Pages)

Czaja, A.D. et al. 2013. Biological Fe oxidation controlled deposition of banded iron formation in the ca. 3770 Ma Isua Supracrustal Belt (West Greenland). Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 363, p. 192-203; DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2012.12.025. (see Earth-Pages)

Dahl, T.W. 2016. Identifying remnants of early Earth. Science, v. 352, p. 768-769; DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf2482. (see Earth-Pages)

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Dodd, M.S. et al. 2017. Evidence for early life in Earth’s oldest hydrothermal vent precipitates. Nature, v. 543, p. 60-64; DOI: 10.1038/nature21377. (see Earth-Pages)

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Dutkiewicz, A. et al. 2006. Biomarkers from Huronian oil-bearing inclusions: An uncontaminated record of life before the Great Oxidation Event. Geology, v. 34, p. 437-440; DOI: 10.1130/G22360.1. (see Earth-Pages)

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Furnes, H. et al. 2004.  Early life recorded in Archean pillow lavasScience, v. 304, p. 578-581; DOI: 10.1126/science.1095858. (see Earth-Pages Early biomarkers in South African pillow lavas)

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Garvin, J. et al. 2009. Isotopic evidence for an aerobic nitrogen cycle in the latest Archaean. Science, v. 323, p. 1045-1048; DOI: 10.1126/science.1165675. (see Earth-Pages)

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Grimm, R.E. & Marchi, S. 2018. Direct thermal effects of the Hadean bombardment did not limit early subsurface habitability. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 485, p. 1-9; doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2017.12.043. (see Earth-Pages)

Hinchliffe, C.E. and 21 others, 2015. Synthesis of phylogeny and taxonomy into a comprehensive tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, v. 112, p. 12764-12769. (see Earth-Pages)

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Hren, M.T. et al. 2009. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope evidence for a temperate climate 3.42 billion years ago. Nature, v. 462, p. 205-208; DOI: 10.1038/nature08518. (see Earth-Pages Was the Archaean blazing hot or balmy?)

Huber, C. et al., 2003.  A possible primordial peptide cycle.  Science, v.  301, p. 938-940; DOI: 10.1126/science.1086501 . (see Earth-Pages)

Javaux, E.J. & Lepot, K. 2017. The Paleoproterozoic fossil record: Implications for the evolution of the biosphere during Earth’s middle-age. Earth Science Reviews, v. 176, p. 68-86; doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2017.10.0001. (see Earth-Pages)

Jortner, J., 2006. Conditions for the emergence of life on the early Earth: summary and reflections. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences), v. 361, p. 1877-1891.

Kauffman, S., 1995.  At Home in the Universe.  Viking, London.

Knoll, A.H., 1992.  The early evolution of eukaryotes: A geological perspective.  Science, v. 256, p. 622-627.

Konhauser, K.O. and eight others 2009. Oceanic nickel depletion and a methanogen famine before the Great Oxidation Event. Nature, v. 458, p. 750-753: DOI: 10.1038/nature07858. (see Earth-Pages)

Lepland, A. et al., 2005.  Questioning the evidence for Earth’s earliest life – Akilia revisited.  Geology, v. 33, p. 77-79; DOI: 10.1130/G20890.1. (see Earth-Pages No graphite in Akilia apatites, no sign of life?)

Leslie, M. 2009. On the origin of photosynthesis. Science, v. 323, p. 1286-1287; DOI: 10.1126/science.323.5919.1286. (see Earth-Pages Photosynthesis from way back when: the hunt for RuBisCO)

Liu, A.G. et al. 2010. First evidence for locomotion in the Ediacaran biota from the 565 Ma Mistaken Point Formation, Newfoundland. Geology, v. 38, p. 123-126; DOI: 10.1130/G30368.1. (see Earth-Pages ‘Roger, I think that triffid just moved’)

Margulis, L., 1970.  The Origin of Eukaryotic Cells.  Yale University Press, New Haven.

Margulis, L., 1996.  Archaeal-eubacterial mergers in the origin of Eukarya: Phylogenetic classification of lifeProceedings of the National Academy of Science, v. 93, p. 1071-1076.

Martin, W.F., Garg, S. & Zimorsky, V. 2015. Endosymbiotic theories for eukaryote origin. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, v. 370

Ménez, B. et al. 2018. Abiotic synthesis of amino acids in the recesses of the oceanic lithosphere. Nature, v. 564, p. 59-63; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-018-0684-z. (see Earth-Pages)

Michaelis, W. and 16 others 2002.  Microbial reefs in the Black Sea fuelled by anaerobic oxidation of methaneScience, v. 297, p. 1013-1015; DOI: 10.1126/science.1072502. (see Earth-Pages Analogue of Archaean carbon cycle in Black Sea reefs)

Mojzsis, S.J., Arrhenius, G., McKeegan, K.D., Harrison, T.M., Nutman, A.P. & Friend, C.R.L., 1996,  Evidence for life on Earth before 3,800 million years ago.  Nature, v. 384, p. 55-59.

Niedźwiedski, G. et al. 2010. Tetrapod trackways from the early Middle Devonian period of Poland. Nature, v. 463, p. 43-48; DOI: 10.1038/nature08623. (see Earth-Pages)

Nisbet, E.G., 1991.  Living Earth: A Short History of Life and its Home.  Harper Collins, London.

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Nisbet, E.G. & Fowler, C.M.R., 1996.  Some liked it hot.  Nature, v. 382, p. 404-405.

Nisbet, E.G. & Sleep, N.H. 2001.  The habitat and nature of early lifeNature Insight, v.  409, p. 1083-1091; doi: 10.1038/35059210. (see Earth-Pages)

Nisbet, E.G. et al. 2007. The age of Rubisco: the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Geobiology, v. 5, p. 311-335; DOI: 10.1111/j.1472-4669.2007.00127.x. (see Earth-Pages Photosynthesis from way back when: the hunt for RuBisCO)

Nutman, A.P. et al. 2016. Rapid emergence of life shown by discovery of 3,700-million-year-old microbial structures. Nature, v. 537, p. 535-538; DOI: 10.1038/nature. (see Earth-Pages)

Oberbeck, V.R., Marshall, J. & Shen, T, 1991.  Prebiotic chemistry in clouds.  Journal of Molecular Evolution, v. 32, p. 296-303.

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Pearson, P.N. et al. 2009. Atmospheric carbon dioxide through the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition. Nature, v. 461, p. 1110-1113; DOI: 10.1038/nature08447. (see Earth-Pages)

Petersen, J.M. and 14 others 2011. Hydrogen is an energy source for hydrothermal vent symbioses. Nature, v. 476, p. 176-180; DOI: 10.1038/nature10325 (see Earth-Pages)

Phoenix, V.R. et al.  2001.  Role of biomineralization as an ultraviolet shield: Implications for Archaean lifeGeology, v. 29, p. 823-826; doi: 10.1130/0091-7613(2001)029<0823:ROBAAU>2.0.CO;2. (see Earth-Pages Surviving the Archaean with a UV jacket)

Planavsky, N. et al. 2009. Iron-oxidizing microbial ecosystems thrived in late Paleoproterozoic redox-stratified oceans. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 286, p. 230-242; DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2009.06.033. (see Earth-Pages)

Planavsky, N.J. et al. 2010. The evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir. Nature, v. 467, p. 1088-1090; DOI: 10.1038/nature09485 (see Earth-Pages)

Rassmussen, B. et al. 2008. Reassessing the first appearance of eukaryotes and cyanobacteria. Nature, v. 455, p. 1101-1104; DOI: 10.1038/nature07381. (see Earth-Pages Evidence for earliest photosynthesisers takes a knock)

Rasmussen, B. et al. 2015. Precipitation of iron silicate nanoparticles in early Precambrian oceans marks Earth’s first iron age. Geology, v. 43, p. 303-306; DOI: 10.1130/G36309.1. (see Earth-Pages)

Rational Wiki, 2016. Endosymbiosis. http://rationalwiki.org/wiki/Endosymbiosis

Rizo, H. et al. 2012. The elusive Hadean enriched reservoir revealed by 142Nd deficits in Isua Archaean rocks. Nature, v. 491, p. 96-100; DOI: 10.1038/nature11565

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Ruepp, A. and 9 others  2000.  The genome sequence of the thermoacidophilic scavenger Thermoplasma acidiphilumNature, v. 407, p. 508-513; doi: 10.1038/35035069. (see Earth-Pages Primordial slime)

Schopf, J.W. et al. 2002.  Laser-Raman imagery of Earth’s earliest fossilsNature, v. 416, p. 73-76; DOI: 10.1038/416073a. (see Earth-Pages Doubt cast on earliest bacterial fossils)

Service, R.F. 2019. Seeing the dawn. Science, v. 363, p. 116-119; DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6423.116. (see Earth-Pages)

Shen, Y.  et al. 2001.  Isotopic evidence for microbial sulphate reduction in the early Archaean eraNature, v. 410, p. 77-81; doi: 10.1038/35065071. (see Earth Pages)

Skelton, P.W. (editor), 1993.  Evolution:A Biological and Palaeontological Approach.  Open University Course S365, Addison-Wesley, Wokingham.

Staudigel, H. et al. 2006. Microbes and volcanoes: A tale from the oceans, ophiolites and greenstone belts. GSA Today, v. 16, October 2006 issue, p. 4-10; DOI: 10.1130/GSAT01609A. (see Earth-Pages)

Touret , J.L.R., 2003. Remnants of early Archaean hydrothermal methane and brines in pillow-breccia from the Isua Greenstone Belt, West Greenland.  Precambrian Research, v. 126, p. 219-233; DOI: 10.1016/S0301-9268(03)00096-2. (see Earth-Pages)

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Ueno, Y. et al. 2006. Evidence from fluid inclusions for microbial methanogenesis in the early Archaean era. Nature, v. 516, p. 516-519; DOI: 10.1038/nature04584. (see Earth-Pages Methane, methanogens and early climate control)

van Zullen, M.A. et al. 2002.  Reassessing the evidence for the earliest traces of lifeNature, v. 418, p. 627-630; DOI: 10.1038/nature00934. (see Earth-Pages Isotopic evidence for early life may be from metamorphic processes)

Wachtershauser, G., 2014. The place of RNA in the origin and early evolution of the genetic machinery. Life (Basel), v. 4.,

Williams, L.B. et al. 2005. Organic molecules formed in a ‘primordial womb’. Geology, v. 33, p. 913-916; DOI: 10.1130/G21751.1. (see Earth-Pages Clay minerals and the origin of life)

Williams, R.J.P & Fraústo da Silva J.J.R., 2003.  Evolution was chemically constrained.  Journal of Theoretical Biology, v. 220, p. 323-343; doi: 10.1006/jtbi.2003.3152. (see Earth-Pages)

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Xiong, J. et al., 2000.  Molecular evidence for the early evolution of photosynthesisScience, v.  289, p. 1724-1730; DOI: 10.1126/science.289.5485.1724. (see Earth-Pages).

Yong, E., 2017. I Contain Multitudes: The Microbes within us and a Grander View of Life. Vintage, London.


Part V: Climate, Mantle and Life

Abrajevitch, A. & van der Voo, R. 2010. Incompatible Ediacaran paleomagnetic directions suggest an equatorial geomagnetic dipole hypothesis. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 293, p. 164-170; DOI: 10.1126/science.1183325. (see Earth-Pages)

Allen, P.A. & Hoffman, P.F. 2005.  Extreme winds and waves in the aftermath of a Neoproterozoic glaciationNature, v. 433, p. 123-127; DOI: 10.1038/nature03176. (see Earth-Pages)

Arnaud, E. & Eyles, C.H. 2002.  Catastrophic mass failure of a Neoproterozoic glacially influenced continental margin, the Great Breccia, Port Askaig Formation, ScotlandSedimentary Geology, v. 151, p. 313-333; doi: 10.1016/S0037-0738(01)00283-4. (see Earth-Pages)

Bains, S. et al. 2000.  Termination of global warmth at the Palaeocene/Eocene boundary through productivity feedbackNature, v. 407, p. 171-174; doi: 10.1038/35025035. (see Earth-Pages)

Benoit, M.H. et al. 2006. Upper mantle P-wave speed variations beneath Ethiopia and the origin of the Afar hotspot. Geology, v. 34, p. 329-332; DOI: 10.1130/G22281.1. (see Earth-Pages Afar and the African superplume)

Berner, R.A., 1994.  Geocarb II: A revised model of atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic time.  American Journal of Science, v. 294, p. 56-91.

Berner, R.A., Lasaga, A.C. & Garrels, R.M., 1983.  The carbonate-silcate geochemical cycle and its efect on atmospheric carbon dioxide over the past 100 million years.  American Journal of Science, v. 283, p. 641-683.

Bodiselitsch, B. et al. 2005.  Estimating duration and intensity of Neoproterozoic Snowball glaciations from Ir anomaliesScience, v. 308. P. 239-242; DOI: 10.1126/science.1104657. (see Earth-Pages)

Bornemann, A. and 8 others 2008. Isotopic evidence for glaciation during the Cretaceous supergreenhouse. Science, v. 319, p. 189-192; DOI: 10.1126/science.1148777. (see Earth-Pages)

Brigham-Grette, J and 15 others 2013. Pliocene warmth, polar amplification, and stepped Pleistocene cooling recorded in NE Arctic Russia. Science, v. 340, p. 1421-1426; DOI: 10.1126/science.1233137. (see Earth-Pages)

Bristow, T.T. et al. 2011. A hydrothermal origin for isotopically anomalous cap dolostone cements from south China. Nature, v. 274, p. 68-71; DOI: 10.1038/nature10096. (see Earth-Pages)

Buffet, B.A., 2010. The enigmatic inner core. Science, v. 328, p. 982-983. (see Earth-Pages)

Calver, C.R. et al. 2004.  U-Pb zircon age constraints on late Neoproterozoic glaciation in Tasmania. Geology, v. 32, p. 893-896; DOI: 10.1130/G20713.1. (see Earth-Pages)

Cohen, A.S. et al. 2004.  Osmium isotope evidence for the regulation of atmospheric CO2 by continental weatheringGeology, v. 32, p. 157-160; DOI: 10.1130/G20158.1. (see Earth-Pages)

Condon, D.J. et al., 2002.  Neoproterozoic glacial-rainout intervals: Observations and implications.  Geology, v. 30, p. 35-38; doi: 10.1130/0091-7613(2002)030<0035:NGRIOA>2.0.CO;2. (see Earth-Pages)

Crowley, T.J. & North, G.R., 1991.  Palaeoclimatology.  Oxford University Press, New York.

Crowley, T.J. and Berner, R.A., 2001.  CO2 and climate change.  Science, v. 292, p. 870-872; DOI: 10.1126/science.1061664. (see Earth-Pages)

Crowley, J.W. et al. 2015. Glacial cycles drive variations in the production of oceanic crust. Science, v. 347, p. 1237-1240; DOI: 10.1126/science.1261508. (see Earth-Pages)

Cyranoski, D., 2006. Magical mantle tour. Nature, v. 440, p. 1108-1110; DOI: 10.1038/4401108a. (see Earth-Pages)

Dalziel, I.W.D., 1995.  Earth before Pangea.  Scientific American (January), p. 38-43.

Davies, R.  et al., 2001.  Early Oligocene initiation of North Atlantic Deep Water formation.  Nature, v. 410, p. 917-920; doi: 10.1038/35073551. (see Earth-Pages)

DeConto, R.M. & Pollard, D. 2003.  Rapid Cenozoic glaciation of Antarctica by declining atmospheric CO2. Nature, v. 421, p. 245-249; DOI: 10.1038/nature01290 . (see Earth-Pages)

Dobson, D.P. & Brodholt, J.P. 2005.  Subducted banded iron formations as a source of ultralow-velocity zones at the core-mantle boundaryNature, v. 434, p. 371-374; DOI: 10.1038/nature03430. (see Earth-Pages)

Donnadieu, Y. et al. 2004.  A “snowball Earth” climate triggered by continental break-up through change in runoffNature, v. 428, p. 303-306; DOI: 10.1038/nature02408. (see Earth-Pages Playing games on Snowball Earth)

Drury, S.A., 2014. Ants and carbon sequestration. Earth Pages, September 2014.

Eldrett, J.S et al. 2009. Increased seasonality through the Eocene to Oligocene transition in high northern latitudes. Nature, v. 459, p. 969-973 (see Earth-Pages)

Eyles, N., 1993.  Earth’s glacial record and its tectonic setting.  Earth-Science Reviews, v. 35, p. 1-248.

Eyles, N. & Januszczac, N. 2004.  “Zipper-rift”: a tectonic model for Neoproterozoic glaciations during breakup of Rodinia after 750 Ma.  Earth-Science Reviews, v. 65, p. 1-73; DOI: 10.1016/S0012-8252(03)00080-1. (see Earth-Pages For and against “Snowball Earth”)

Fanning, C.M & Link, P.K. 2004.  U-Pb SHRIMP ages of Neoproterozoic (Sturtian) glaciogenic Pocatello Formation, southeastern Idaho.  Geology, v. 32, p. 881-884; DOI: 10.1130/G20609.1. (see Earth-Pages)

Francis, P.W. & Dise, N.B., 1997.  Atmosphere, Earth and Life.  Open University, Milton Keynes.

François, L.M. & Walker, J.G.C., 1992.  Modelling the Phanerozoic carbon cycle and climate: Constraints from the 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratio of seawater. American Journal of Science, v. 292, p. 81-135; DOI: 10.2475/ajs.292.2.81.

Franks, P.J. et al. 2014. New constraints on atmospheric CO2 concentration for the Phanerozoic. Geophysical Research Letters, v. 41, p. 4685-4694; DOI: 10.1002/2014GL060457. (see Earth-Pages)

Galeotti, S. et al., 2016. Antarctic Ice Sheet variability across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary climate transition. Science, v. 352, p. 76-80; DOI: 10.1126/science.aab0669.

Garnero, E.J. 2004.  A new paradigm for the Earth’s core-mantle boundaryScience, v. 304, p. 834-836; DOI: 10.1126/science.1097849. (see Earth Pages)

Gasiewicz, A. & Slowakiewicz,M. (Eds), 2013. Palaeozoic Climate Cyscles: Their Evolutionary and Sedimentological Impact. Special Publication 376, Geological Society, London.

Hand, E. 2017. Fossil leaves bear witness to ancient carbon dioxide levels. Science, v. 355, p. 14-15; DOI: 10.1126/science.355.6320.14. (see Earth-Pages)

Heavens, N.G. et al., 2015. A model-based evaluation of tropical climate in Pangaea during the late Palaeozoic icehouse. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 426, p. 109-127; DOI: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2015.02.024.

Hesselbo, S.P. et al., 2000.  Massive dissociation of gas hydrate during a Jurassic ocean anoxic eventNature, v. 406, p. 392-395; doi: 10.1038/35019044. (see Earth-Pages Methane hydrate – more evidence for the ‘greenhouse’ time bomb)

Hessler, A.M., Lowe, D.R., Jones, R.L. & Bird, D.K., 2004. A lower limit for atmospheric carbon dioxide levels 3.2 billion years ago. Nature, v. 428, p. 736-738; DOI: 10.1038/nature02471 .

Hirose, K. 2010. The Earth’s missing ingredient. Scientific American, v. 302 (June 2010 issue), p. 58-65. (see Earth-Pages)

Hoffman, K.-H. et al 2004.  U-Pb zircon dates from the Neoproterozoic Ghaub Formation, Namibia: constraints on Marinoan glaciation.  Geology, v. 32, p. 817-820; DOI: 10.1130/G20519.1. (see Earth-Pages For and against “Snowball Earth”)

Hoffman, P. et al., 2005-9. Snowball Earth website.

Hren, M.T. et al. 2009. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope evidence for a temperate climate 3.42 billion years ago. Nature, v. 462, p. 205-208.

Huber, M. & Caballero, R. 2003.  Eocene El Niño: Evidence for robust tropical dynamics in the “hothouse”Science, v. 299, p. 877-881; DOI: 10.1126/science.1078766. (see Earth-Pages El Niño in the Eocene)

Hutko, A.R. et al. 2006. Seismic detection of folded, subducted lithosphere at the core-mantle boundary. Nature, 441, p. 333-336; DOI: 10.1038/nature04757. (see Earth-Pages)

Huybers, P. & Wunsche, C. 2005.  Obliquity pacing of the late Pleistocene glacial terminationsNature, v. 434, p. 491-494; DOI: 10.1038/nature03401. (see Earth-Pages)

Jacobson, A.D. & Blum, J.D., 2003.  relationship between mechanical erosion and atmospheric consumption in the New Zealand Southern Alps.  Geology, v. 31, p. 865-868. (see Earth-Pages Continental erosion and climate)

Jenkyns, H.C. et al. 2004.  High temperatures in the Late Cretaceous Arctic OceanNature, v. 432, p. 888-892; DOI: 10.1038/nature03143. (see Earth-Pages)

Kasting, J.F. 2004.  When methane made climateScientific American, v. 291(1), p. 52-59. (see Earth-Pages Earth’s early climate and methane)

Kasting, J.F. & Ono, S., 2006. Palaeoclimates: the first two billion years. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, v. 361, p. 917-929.

Kaufman, A.J., 1997.  An ice age in the tropics.  Nature, v. 386, p. 227-228.

Kauffman, A.J. & Xiao, S. 2003.  High CO2 levels in the Proterozoic atmosphere estimated from analyses of individual microfossilsNature, v.  425, p. 279-282; DOI: 10.1038/nature01902. (see Earth-Pages Precambrian CO2 levels)

Kemp, D.B. et al. 2005. Astronomical pacing of methane release in the Early Jurassic period. Nature, v. 437, p. 396-399; DOI: 10.1038/nature04037. (see Earth-Pages Milankovich forcing and Early Jurassic methane)

Kendall, B. et al. 2006. Re-Os geochronology of postglacial black shales in Australia: constraints on the timing of the ‘Sturtian’ glaciation. Geology, v. 34, p. 729-732; DOI: 10.1130/G22775.1. (see Earth-Pages)

Kennedy, M.J. et al. 2001.  Are Proterozoic cap carbonates and isotopic excursions a record of gas hydrate destabilization following Earth’s coldest intervalsGeology, v. 29, p. 443-446; doi: 10.1130/0091-7613(2001)029<0443:APCCAI>2.0.CO;2. (see Earth-Pages Methane and Snowball Earth)

Kerr, R.A. 2010. Snowball Earth has melted back to a profound wintry mix. Science, v. 327, p. 1186; DOI: 10.1126/science.327.5970.1186). (see Earth-Pages)

Knoll, A.H., 2000.  Learning to tell Neoproterozoic timePrecambrian Research, v. 100, p. 3-20; doi: 10.1016/S0301-9268(99)00067-4. (see Earth-Pages)

Kump, L.R. 2009. Tipping pointedly colder. Science, v. 323, p. 1175-1176.

Larson, R.L., 1995.  The mid-Cretaceous superplume episode.  Scientific American, (February), p. 66-70.

Lear, C.H. & Lunt, D.J., 2016. How Antarctica got its ice. Science, v. 352, p. 34-35; DOI: 10.1126/science.aad6284.

Leather, J. et al. 2002. Neoproterozoic snowball Earth under scrutiny: Evidence from the Fiq glaciation of Oman.  Geology, v. 30, p. 891-894; DOI: 10.1130/0091-7613(2002)030<0891:NSEUSE>2.0.CO;2. (see Earth-Pages)

Le Heron, D.P. 2018. An exhumed Paleozoic glacial landscape in Chad. Geology, v.46(1), p. 91-94; doi:10.1130/G39510.1. (see Earth-Pages)

Liu, Z.  et al., 2009. Global cooling during the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition. Science, v. 323, p. 1187-1190. (see Earth-Pages Climate at the Eocene-Oligocene (E-O) boundary)

Macdonald,F.A. et al. 2019. Arc-continent collisions in the tropics set Earth’s climate state. Science, v. 363 (in press); DOI: 10.1126/science.aav5300. (see Earth-Pages)

Martin, A.P et al. 2013. A review of temporal constraints for the Palaeoproterozoic large, positive carbonate carbon isotope excursion (the Lomagundi–Jatuli Event). Earth-Science Reviews, v. 127, p. 242-261; DOI: 10.1130/G23764A.1. (see Earth-Pages)

Maslin, M. et al. 2004.  Linking continental-slope failures and climate change: Testing the clathrate gun hypothesisGeology, v. 32, p. 53-56; DOI: 10.1130/G20114.1 (see Earth-Pages)

Miller, K.G. and 9 others 2005. The Phanerozoic record of global sea-level change. Science, v. 310, p. 1293-1298; DOI: 10.1126/science.1116412. (see Earth-Pages)

Myrow, P.M. et al. 2018. Rapid sea level rise in the aftermath of a Neoproterozoic snowball Earth. Science, v. 360, p. 649-651; doi:10.1126/science.aap8612. (see Earth-Pages)

Nisbet, E. & Fowler, C.M.R., 2011. The evolution of the atmosphere in the Archaean and early Proterozoic. Chinese Science Bulletin, v. 56, p. 4-13.

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Parrish, J.T., 1992.  Climate of the supercontinent Pangea.  Journal of Geology, v. 101, p. 215-233.

Patterson, D., 1993.  Did Tibet cool the world?  New Scientist, (July 3), p. 29-33.

Pavlov, A.A. et al. 2003.  Methane-rich Proterozoic atmosphere?  Geology, v. 31, p. 87-90; DOI: 10.1130/0091-7613(2003)031<0087:MRPA>2.0.CO;2. (see Earth-Pages Precambrian warmth and methane)

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Pearson, P.N. et al. 2009. Atmospheric carbon dioxide through the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition. Nature, v. 461, p. 1110-1113. (see Earth-Pages)

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Retallack, G.J. 2001.  A 300-million-year record of atmospheric carbon dioxide from fossil plant cuticlesNature, v. 411, p, 287-290; doi: 10.1038/35077041. (see Earth-Pages Plant respiration and climate)

Retallack, G.J 2016. Ediacaran sedimentology and paleoecology of Newfoundland reconsidered. Sedimentary Geology, v. 333, p. 15-31; DOI: 10.1016/j.sedgeo.2015.12.001. (see Earth-Pages)

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Rosing, M.T. et al. 2006. The rise of continents – An essay on the geologic consequences of photosynthesis. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology v. 232, p. 99-113; DOI: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2006.01.007. (see Earth-Pages)

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Roydon, L.H. et al. 2008. The geological evolution of the Tibetan Plateau. Science, v. 321, p. 1054-1058; DOI: 10.1126/science.1155371.

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Runkel, A.C. et al. 2010. Tropical shoreline ice in the late Cambrian: implications for Earth’s climate between the Cambrian Explosion and the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event. GSA Today v.20 (11), p. 4-10; DOI: 10.1130/GSATG84A.1. (see Earth-Pages)

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Shaviv, N.J. & Veiser, J.  2003.  Celestial driver of Phanerozoic climate?  GSA Today, Huly 2003, p. 4-10; DOI: 10.1130/1052-5173(2003)013<0004:CDOPC>2.0.CO;2. (see Earth-Pages “Greenhouse” controls challenged)

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Part VI: Life’s Ups and Downs

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Fielding, C.R. and 10 others 2019. Age and pattern of the southern high-latitude continental end-Permian extinction constrained by multiproxy analysis. Nature Communications, v. 10, online publications: DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-07934-z. ( Chris Fielding comments on the paper at Nature Research/Ecology and Evolution, (see Earth-Pages)

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Fu, D. and 14 others 2019. The Qingjiang biota—A Burgess Shale-type fossil Lagerstätte from the early Cambrian of South China. Science, v. 363, p. 1338-1342; DOI: 10.1126/science.aau8800, (see Earth-Pages)

Ganino, C. & Arndt, N.T. 2009. Climate change caused by degassing of sediments during the emplacement of large igneous provinces. Geology, v. 37, p. 323-326; DOI: 10.1130/G25325A.1 . (see Earth-Pages Gas source for flood basalts)

Gee, C.T., Sander, P.M & Petzelberger, B.E.M., 2003. A Miocene rodent nut cache in coastal dunes of the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany.  Palaeontology, v. 46, p. 1133-1149; DOI: 10.1046/j.0031-0239.2003.00337. (see Earth-Pages)

Gibling, M.R. & Davies, N.S 2012. Palaeozoic landscapes shaped by plant evolution. Nature Geocience, v. 5, p. 99-105; DOI: 10.1038/ngeo1376. (see Earth-Pages)

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Grasby, S.E. et al. 2011. Catastrophic dispersion of coal fly ash into oceans during the latest Permian extinction. Nature Geoscience, v. 4, p. 104-107; DOI: 10.1038/ngeo1069. (see Earth-Pages)

Grey, K. et al., 2003.  Neoproterozoic biotic diversification: Snowball Earth or aftermath of the Acraman impact?  Geology, v. 31, p. 459-462. (see Earth-Pages)

Gutiérrez-Marco, J.C. et al. 2009. Giant trilobites and trilobite clusters from the Ordovician of Portugal. Geology, v. 37, p. 443-446; DOI: 10.1130/G25513A.1(see Earth-Pages Social behaviour among giant trilobites)

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Hecht, J. 2003.  Did a gamma-ray burst devastate life on Earth?  New Scientist, 27 September 2003, p. 17. (see Earth-Pages Gamma-ray bursts and mass extinctions)

Heeren, F. 201. Rise of the titans. Nature, v. 475, p. 159-161; DOI: 10.1038/475159a. (see Earth-Pages)

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Hinchcliff, C.E. and 21 others 2015. Synthesis of phlogeny and taxonomy into a comprehensive tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 112, p. 12764-12769; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1423041112. (see Earth-Pages)

Holmes, R., 2009. Sponge larvae: Your unlikely ancestors. New Scientist, v. 202 (2 May Issue), p. 38-41. (see Earth-Pages)

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Part VII: The People’s Planet

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Anon 2012. Homo heidelbergensis was only slightly taller than the Neanderthal (eurekalert.org)

Alperson-Afil, N. 2008. Continual fire-making by Hominins at Gesher Benot Ya‘aqov, Israel. Quaternary Science Reviews, v. 27, p. 1733–1739; DOI: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2008.06.009. (see Earth-Pages)

Armitage, S.J. et al. 2011. The southern route ‘out of Africa’: evidence for an early expansion of modern humans into Arabia. Science, v. 331, p. 453-456; DOI: 10.1126/science

Atkinson, Q. D., 2011. Phonemic diversity supports a serial founder effect model of language expansion from Africa. Science, v. 332, p. 346-349; DOI: 10.1126/science.1199295. (see Comment)

Aubert, M. and 9 others 2014. Pleistocene cave art from Sulawesi, Indonesia. Nature, v. 514, p. 223-227; DOI: 10.1038/nature13422. (see Earth-Pages)

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Balter, M. 2002. What made humans modern? Science, v. 295, p. 1219-1225; DOI: 10.1126/science.295.5558.1219. (see Earth-Pages)

Balter, M. 2009. New work may complicate history of Neandertals and H. sapiens. Science, v. 326, p. 224-225; DOI: 10.1126/science.326_224

Balter, M. 2009. On the origin of art and symbolism. Science, v. 323, p. 709-711; DOI: 10.1126/science.323.5915.709. (see Earth-Pages)

Balter, M. 2012. New light on revolutions that weren’t. Science, v. 336. p. 530-531; Earliest musical instruments in Europe 40,000 years ago

Balter, M. 2010. Candidate human ancestor from South Africa sparks praise and debate. Science. v. 328, p. 154-155; DOI: 10.1126/science.328.5975.154 (see Earth-Pages Other rich hominin pickings)

Barras, C. 2017. Homo naledi is only 250,000 years old – here’s why that matters. New Scientist, 6 May 2017 Issue. (see Earth-Pages)

Balter, M. 2011. Was North Africa the launch pad for modern human migrations? Science, v. 331, p. 20-23; DOI: 10.1126/science.331.6013.20

Bartholoet, J. 2012. Swept from Africa to the Sahara. Scientific American, v. 306 (February 2012), p. 34-39. (see Earth-Pages)

Bennett, K.D. et al. 2000.  The last glacial-Holocene transition in Southern ChileScience, v. 290, p, 325-328; doi: 10.1126/science.290.5490.325. (see Earth-Pages News from the South)

Bennett, M.R. and 11 others 2009. Early hominin foot morphology based on 1.5-million-year old footprints from Ileret, Kenya. Science, v. 323, p. 1197-1201; DOI: 10.1126/science.1168132. (see Earth-Pages Walking with the ancestors)

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Berger, A. & Loutre, M.F. 2002.  An exceptionally long interglacial ahead?  Science, v. 297, p. 1287-1288; DOI: 10.1126/science.1076120. (see Earth-Pages)

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Berger, L. R. and 46 others 2015. Homo naledi, a new species of the genus Homo from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa. eLife (see Earth-Pages)

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Boaz, N.T. & Ciochon, R.L., 2004. Dragon Bone Hill: An Ice Age Saga of Homo erectus. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

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Bradshaw Foundation, Web, World Heritage Rock Art Centre

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Broecker W.S., 1999. What If the Conveyor Were to Shut Down? GSA Today 9 (1): 1–7

Broecker, W.S., 2003.  Does the trigger for abrupt climate change reside in the ocean or in the atmosphere?  Science, v. 300, p. 1519-1522; DOI: 10.1126/science.1083797. (see Earth-Pages Broecker reviews climate triggers)

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Brooks, A.S. and 14 others 2018. Long-distance stone transport and pigment use in the earliest Middle Stone Age. Science, v. 359 online; DOI: 10.1126/science.aao2646

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Brumm, A. and 22 others, 2016. Age and context of the oldest known hominin fossils from Flores. Nature, v.  534, p. 249-253; DOI: 10.1038/nature17663. (see Earth-Pages)

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